NCC 2022 Volume One - Building Code of Australia Class 2 to 9 buildings

E1

Part E1 Fire fighting equipment

Part E1 Fire fighting equipment

Introduction to this Part

This Part focuses on provision of fire-fighting equipment which can enable occupants to fight the fire in its early stages and/or evacuate the building safely, facilitate fire brigade intervention and minimise the risk of fire spread between buildings.

Objectives

The Objective of this Part is to—

  1. safeguard occupants from illness or injury while evacuating during a fire; and
  2. provide facilities for occupants and the fire brigade to undertake fire-fighting operations; and
  3. prevent the spread of fire between buildings.

Fire in buildings

If a fire occurs in a buildingit must not endanger evacuating occupants or spreadto another building.

Facilities to fight a fire in its early stages

Simple and lightweight equipment allows occupants to attack a fire during its early stages. Provision of this equipment often helps occupants to either extinguish or limit the development of a fire before the fire brigade arrives.

Facilities to assistthe fire brigade

To assist in stopping or limiting the spread of fire, facilities must be providedto assist the fire brigade

Functional Statements

A building is to be provided with fire-fighting equipment to safeguard against fire spread—

  1. to allow occupants time to evacuate safely without being overcome by the effects of fire; and
  2. so that occupants may undertake initial attack on a fire; and
  3. so that the fire brigade have the necessary equipment to undertake search, rescue and fire-fighting operations; and
  4. to other parts of the building; and
  5. between buildings.

Suitable facilities to be installed

Suitable facilities may need to be installed in a building to minimise the risk of fire spread to:

  • enable occupants to evacuate;
  • enable occupants and the fire brigade to fight the fire and for the fire brigade to undertake rescue operations; and
  • minimise the damage which could result from fire spreading to other parts of the building or other buildings.

Facilities may be manually or automatically operated ,and include :fire hydrants ;fire hose reels; sprinkler systems; portable fire extinguishers.

Buildings may incorporate a fire-control centre.

Performance Requirements

A fire hose reel system must be installed to the degree necessary to allow occupants to safely undertake initial attack on a fire appropriate to—

  1. the size of the fire compartment; and
  2. the function or use of the building; and
  3. any other fire safety systems installed in the building; and
  4. the fire hazard.

Fire hose reels in buildings allow occupants to fight a fire. The fire may be in its infancy, and early control or extinguishment may reduce the hazard, allow more time for evacuation and prevent structural damage.

“To the degree necessary”

See the explanation of this term in A1G4(3)(c).

Criteria for fire hose reels

As set out in E1P1, fire hose reels must be installed when necessary, and be appropriate to a number of factors, including:

  • the size of the fire compartment which is a measure of the size of any potential fire;
  • the function of the building will affect the fire load in the building;
  • the fire-safety systems which can affect the rate of fire spread (e.g. if a sprinkler system is installed in a building, it should extinguish the fire or reduce its growth rate); and
  • the fire hazard which means the danger in terms of potential harm and degree of exposure arising from the start and spread of fire, and the smoke and gases generated by a fire.

Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions

E1D3 provides a number of examples where fire hose reels must be installed if the proposal being considered involves a solution which uses the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions.

Performance Solutions

If a Performance Solution is used, it may be appropriate to assess it using E1D3 for guidance purposes. However, it is stressed that compliance with E1D3 is not compulsory if alternative means can be found to satisfy the appropriate authority that the Performance Requirements will be achieved.

Fire extinguishers must be installed to the degree necessary to allow occupants to undertake initial attack on a fire appropriate to—

  1. the function or use of the building; and
  2. any other fire safety systems installed in the building; and
  3. the fire hazard.

Fire extinguishers in buildings allow occupants to fight fires. Extinguishment may complete all the functions listed in E1P1 above.

Fire extinguishers should be located in plain view, along normal paths of travel and near exits where possible. They should not be located in hazardous places.

“To the degree necessary”

This expression’s use in E1P2 indicates that the BCA recognises that not all buildings need fire extinguishers; and fire extinguishers are used for specific purposes, as set out in AS 2444.

Any decision made in this context can extend to not requiring an item to be installed or a particular level of performance to be achieved, if that is the appropriate action to be taken.

Criteria for fire extinguishers

As set out in E1P2, fire extinguishers must be installed when necessary, and be appropriate to a number of factors, including:

  • the function or use of the building will affect the fire load in the building;
  • the fire-safety systems in the building which can affect the rate of fire spread (e.g. if a sprinkler system is installed in a building, it should extinguish the fire or reduce its growth rate); and
  • the fire hazard which means the danger in terms of potential harm and degree of exposure arising from the start and spread of fire, and the smoke and gases generated by a fire.

Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions

E1D5 to E1D12 provide a number of examples where fire extinguishers must be installed if the proposal being considered involves a solution which uses the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions.

Performance Solutions

If a Performance Solution is being used, it may be appropriate to assess it using E1D14(3), (4), (5) and (6) for guidance purposes. However, it is stressed that compliance with E1D14(3), (4), (5) and (6) is not compulsory if alternative means can be found to satisfy the appropriate authority that the Performance Requirements will be achieved.

A fire hydrant system must be provided to the degree necessary to facilitate the needs of the fire brigade appropriate to—

  1. fire-fighting operations; and
  2. the floor area of the building; and
  3. the fire hazard.

Applications

E1P3 only applies to a building where a fire brigade is available to attend.

The intent of installing a fire hydrant system is to provide adequate water, under sufficient pressure and flow, to allow the fire brigade to fight fires.

Under its Application provision, E1P3 only applies to buildings located in an area serviced by a fire brigade. This is primarily because the pressures and flows from a fire hydrant are such that hydrants should only be used by the fire brigade.

It is expected that designers will meet any special fire brigade requirements, which may cover such matters as the types of couplings and special flows and pressures to suit a particular nozzle.

“To the degree necessary”

The use of the expression “to the degree necessary” in E1P3 indicates that the BCA recognises that not all buildings need fire hydrants.

Any decision made in this context can extend to not requiring an item to be installed or a particular level of performance to be achieved, if that is the appropriate action to be taken.

Criteria for fire hydrant systems

As set out in E1P3, a fire hydrant system must be installed when necessary, and be appropriate to a number of factors, including:

  • the need to meet the requirements of the local fire brigade (because of the pressures and flows), fire hydrants should only be used by the fire brigade;
  • the floor area of the building which is a measure of the size of any potential fire; and
  • the fire hazard which means the danger in terms of potential harm and degree of exposure arising from the start and spread of fire, and the smoke and gases generated by a fire.

Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions

E1D2 provides a number of examples where fire hydrants must be installed if the proposal being considered involves a solution which uses the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions.

Performance Solutions

If a Performance Solution is used, it may be appropriate to assess it using E1D2 for guidance purposes. However it is stressed that compliance with E1D2 is not compulsory if alternative means can be found to satisfy the appropriate authority that the Performance Requirements will be achieved.

An automatic fire suppression system must be installed to the degree necessary to control the development and spread of fire appropriate to—

  1. the size of the fire compartment; and
  2. the function or use of the building; and
  3. the fire hazard; and
  4. the height of the building.

E1P4 is not limited to sprinkler systems

A sprinkler system is only one type of automatic fire suppression system. E1P4 is not limited to sprinkler systems. If it can be demonstrated that another automatic fire system can control the development and spread of a fire, it may comply with E1P4. Its activation must be “automatic” and must not depend on human intervention.

Life safety and fire suppression

Automatic fire suppression systems, such as sprinkler systems, are normally used in a building to contain and extinguish fire. When an automatic fire suppression system operates, it not only controls or limits the fire development, but statistics show that, in most cases, the fire is extinguished before the fire brigade arrives at the building.

An automatic fire suppression system is regarded as part of a building’s life safety package because:

  • if the system extinguishes the fire before it fully develops, the fire will not endanger the occupants; and
  • if the system limits or controls the spread of a fire, it allows occupants more time to evacuate to a safe place.

“To the degree necessary”

The use of the expression “to the degree necessary” in E1P4 indicates that the BCA recognises that not all buildings need an automatic fire suppression system.

Any decision made in this context can extend to not requiring an item to be installed or particular level of performance to be achieved, if that is the appropriate action to be taken.

Criteria for automatic fire suppression systems

As set out in E1P4, an automatic fire suppression system, such as a sprinkler system, must be installed when necessary, and be appropriate to a number of factors.

When implementing, the likely size and intensity of a fire should be taken into consideration. This can be as measured by:

  • the size of the fire compartment which is a measure of the size of any potential fire;
  • the function or use of the building will affect the fire load in the building;
  • the fire hazard which means the danger in terms of potential harm and degree of exposure arising from the start and spread of fire, and the smoke and gases generated by a fire; and
  • the height of the building, because once a building gets above a certain height it becomes extremely difficult (and eventually impossible) for the fire brigade to undertake external rescue or firefighting from ladders and the like. The height also affects evacuation time.

Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions

E1D4 provides a number of examples where a sprinkler system must be installed if the proposal being considered involves a solution which uses the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions.

Performance Solutions

If a Performance Solution to the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions in Part E1 is being used, it may be appropriate to assess it using E1D4 for guidance purposes. However, it is stressed that compliance with E1D4 is not compulsory if alternative means can be found to satisfy the appropriate authority that the Performance Requirements will be achieved.

Suitable means of fire-fighting must be installed to the degree necessary in a building under construction to allow initial fire attack by construction workers and for the fire brigade to undertake attack on the fire appropriate to—

  1. the fire hazard; and
  2. the height the building has reached during its construction.

A fire in a building under construction represents a significant public safety, health and amenity risk. Accordingly, there is a need for firefighting in such buildings.

This Performance Requirement recognises the fact that a significant number of fires occur in buildings during their construction or major refurbishment. Statistics indicate that a number of fires have been started by sparks. The fire has then spread because services were turned off for construction purposes.

“To the degree necessary”

The use of the expression “to the degree necessary” in E1P5 indicates that the BCA recognises that not all buildings need firefighting services during construction.

Any decision made in this context can extend to not requiring an item to be installed or a particular level of performance to be achieved, if that is the appropriate action to be taken.

Criteria for firefighting services in buildings under construction

As set out in E1P5, firefighting services must be installed in buildings under construction when necessary, and must be appropriate to a number of factors, including:

  • the fire hazard which means the danger in terms of potential harm and degree of exposure arising from the start and spread of fire, and the smoke and gases generated by a fire; and
  • the height the building has reached during its construction which is a measure of the extent to which the fire brigade can fight any fire from the outside of the building.

Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions

E1D16 provides a number of examples where firefighting services must be installed if the proposal being considered involves a solution which uses the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions.

Performance Solutions

If a Performance Solution to the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions in Part E1 is being used, it may be appropriate to assess it using E1D16 for guidance purposes. However, it is stressed that compliance with E1D16 is not compulsory if alternative means can be found to satisfy the appropriate authority that the Performance Requirements will be achieved.

Suitable facilities must be provided to the degree necessary in a building to co-ordinate fire brigade intervention during an emergency appropriate to—

  1. the function or use of the building; and
  2. the floor area of the building; and
  3. the height of the building.

E1P6 requires that a part of a building be set aside for the fire brigade to co-ordinate its search and rescue, and firefighting operations during a fire. These areas are referred to as “fire control centres”.

“To the degree necessary”

The use of the expression “to the degree necessary” in E1P6 indicates that the BCA recognises that not all buildings need a fire control centre. Any decision made in this context can extend to not requiring an item to be installed or a particular level of performance to be achieved, if that is the appropriate action to be taken.

Criteria for co-ordination facilities

As set out in E1P6, co-ordination facilities must be installed when necessary, and be appropriate to a number of factors, including:

  • the function or use of the building will affect the fire load in the building;
  • the floor area of the building which is a measure of the size of any potential fire; and
  • the height of the building which is a measure of the extent to which the fire brigade can fight any fire or carry out rescue operations from the outside of the building and the evacuation time.

Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions

E1D15 provides a number of examples where a fire control centre must be installed if the proposal being considered involves a solution which uses the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions.

Performance Solutions

If a Performance Solution to the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions in Part E1 is being used, it may be appropriate to assess it using E1D15 for guidance purposes. However, it is stressed that compliance with E1D15 is not compulsory if alternative means can be found to satisfy the appropriate authority that the Performance Requirements will be achieved.

NCC Blurbs

An automatic fire detection system must be installed to the degree necessary to alert the fire brigade of fire so that fire fighting operations may be undertaken at the earliest possible time to limit property and environmental damage appropriate to—

  1. the building functions and use; and
  2. the fire hazard; and
  3. the height of the building; and
  4. the building floor area.

Applications

Tas E1P7 only applies to—

  1. a Class 5 building or Class 6 building having an aggregate floor area of more than 1000 m2; and
  2. a Class 7 building having a floor area of more than 1000 m2 in which furniture is stored; and
  3. a Class 8 building which is a special fire hazard building and in which more than 25 persons are employed; and
  4. a Class 9b building which is a school or early childhood centre or a creche which—
    1. is of more than 1 storey; or
    2. has a storey with a floor area more than 500 m2; and
  5. a Class 9b building which is a theatre.
NCC Title
Automatic fire detection system
NCC State
TAS
NCC Variation Type
Insertion
NCC SPTC Current
Automatic fire detection system

Verification Methods

Compliance with E1P1, E1P2, E1P3, E1P4 and E1P6 is verified when a building is designed in accordance with C1V4.

Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions

NCC Blurbs

Performance RequirementsE1P1 to E1P6 and TAS E1P7 are satisfied by complying with E1D2 to E1D16, TAS E1D17, and for farm buildings and farm sheds, Part I3.

NCC Title
Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions
NCC State
TAS
NCC Variation Type
Replacement
NCC SPTC Current
Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions

(1) Where a Deemed-to-Satisfy Solution is proposed, Performance Requirements E1P1 to E1P6 are satisfied by complying with—

  1. E1D2 to E1D17; and
  2. in a building containing an atrium, Part G3; and
  3. in a building in an alpine area, Part G4; and
  4. for a building containing an occupiable outdoor area, Part G6; and
  5. for additional requirements for Class 9b buildings, Part I1; and
  6. for farm buildings and farm sheds, Part I3.

(2) Where a Performance Solution is proposed, the relevant Performance Requirements must be determined in accordance with A2G2(3) and A2G4(3) as applicable.

To clarify that the requirements of E1P1 to E1P6 will be satisfied if compliance is achieved with E1D2 to E1D17 in the case of all buildings, Part G3 in the case of buildings with an atrium, Part G4 in the case of buildings in alpine areas, Part G6 in the case of occupiable outdoor areas, Part I1 in the case of theatres, stages and public halls and Part I3 for farm buildings and farm sheds.

(1) A fire hydrant system must be provided to serve a building—

  1. having a total floor area greater than 500 m2; and
  2. where a fire brigade station is—
    1. no more than 50 km from the building as measured along roads; and
    2. equipped with equipment capable of utilising a fire hydrant.

(2) The fire hydrant system must be installed in accordance with AS 2419.1.

(3) Notwithstanding (2), a Class 8 electricity network substation need not comply with clause 4.2 of AS 2419.1 if—

  1. it cannot be connected to a town main supply; and
  2. one hour water storage is provided for fire-fighting.

(4) Where internal fire hydrants are provided, they must serve only the storey on which they are located except that a sole-occupancy unit

  1. in a Class 2 or 3 building or Class 4 part of a building may be served by a single fire hydrant located at the level of egress from that sole-occupancy unit; or
  2. of not more than 2 storeys in a Class 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9 building may be served by a single fire hydrant located at the level of egress from that sole-occupancy unit provided the fire hydrant can provide coverage to the whole of the sole-occupancy unit.

SA E1D2 Fire hydrants2019: E1.3

Insert SA subclause E1D2(5) in clause E1D2 as follows:

(5) In a farm building, in lieu of providing a fire hydrant system in accordance with (2), the building may be provided with—

  1. a fire hydrant system installed in accordance with AS 2419.1 with the following variations—
    1. in lieu of 4 hour water supply the minimum on-site water supply quantity must be as set out in Table SA E1D2 for the particular building group; and
    2. for Group A and B buildings over 1000 m2 in floor area each tank used must have a capacity of not less than 72,000 litres; and
    3. for single tank systems compliance with clause 4.3.3 is not required; and
    4. compliance with clause 4.3.1 of AS 2419.1 is not required; and
    5. for buildings incorporating non-fire-resistant polystyrene sandwich panel construction, the minimum water supply quantities in Table SA E1D2 must be increased by 50%; and
    6. an on-site pumpset is not required if the design performance of section 2.3 of AS 2419.1 is achieved based on use of a fire truck pump with a capacity of 1,900 litres per minute at 1,000 kPa; and
    7. in lieu of the coverage specified in AS 2419.1, external fire hydrants are located so that every part of the perimeter of a building is within 100 m from a hydrant outlet measured along the shortest distance of travel between or around buildings; or
  2. a water supply system comprising single or multiple on-site water storage tanks with connections for use by the fire brigade and complying with the requirements of AS 2419.1 for water supplies and water storage, except that—
    1. in lieu of 4 hour water supply the minimum on-site water supply quantity must be as set out in Table SA E1D2 for the particular building group;
    2. for Group A and B buildings over 1000 m2 in floor area each tank used must have a capacity of not less than 72,000 litres;
    3. for single tank systems compliance with clause 4.3.3 of AS 2419.1 is not required;
    4. for buildings incorporating non-fire-resistant polystyrene sandwich panel construction, the minimum water supply quantities in Table SA E1D2 must be increased by 50%;
    5. an on-site pumpset need not be provided;
    6. for Group A or B buildings water storage tanks must be distributed so every part of the perimeter of a building is not more than 100 m from a tank suction point, measured along the shortest distance of travel between or around buildings;
    7. for Group C buildings water storage tanks must be distributed so that every part of the perimeter of a building is within a 200 m radius of a tank suction point;
    8. all pipes, valves and fittings for water storage tanks and connections must comply with section 5 and sections 8.2, 8.3, 8.6 and 8.7 of AS 2419.1 as relevant;
    9. a hardstand area and vehicular approach from the site entrance, suitable for use by the fire brigade must be provided adjacent to each water storage tank.

SA E1D2 Fire hydrants2019: E1.3

Insert SA subclause E1D2(6) in clause E1D2 as follows:

(6) A dam may be regarded as a water storage tank if it complies with the requirements of section 5 of AS 2419.1 and the water level is maintained above the top of the highest fire brigade suction point at all times.

SA E1D2 Fire hydrants2019: E1.3

Insert SA subclause E1D2(7) in clause E1D2 as follows:

(7) The requirements of (1), (2), (3), (4) and SA E1D2(5) and (6) do not apply to a farm shed.

SA E1D2 Fire hydrants2019: E1.3

Insert SA subclause E1D2(8) in clause E1D2 as follows:

(8) In a bulk grain storage facility, on-site hydrants are not required where—

  1. street hydrants are available adjacent to the site which can supply water at not less than 5 litres per second; or
  2. a water supply system comprising single or multiple on-site water storage tanks with connections for use by the fire brigade and complying with the requirements of AS 2419.1 for water supplies and water storage, except that—
    1. in lieu of a 4 hour water supply, an on-site water storage tank containing not less than 25,000 litres is provided within 90 m of a dry booster connection Figure SA E1D2; and
    2. one dry riser is provided for each cell type silo in a bulk grain storage facility, located in the middle of the longest side of the facility and within 4 m of a required exit; and
    3. all areas to be protected are within 60 m of a riser outlet, measured around obstacles; and
    4. metal or high pressure plastic pipe can used for the dry riser; and
    5. all pipes, valves and fittings for water storage tanks and connections must comply with section 5 and sections 8.2, 8.3, 8.6 and 8.7 of AS 2419.1 as relevant; and
    6. a hardstand area and vehicular approach from the site entrance, suitable for use by the fire brigade must be provided adjacent each water storage tank.
Insert SA table (E1D2) E1D2 as follows:
SA Table E1D2: Minimum quantities for on-site water supplies for farm buildings
Building Group Floor area (m2) Minimum water supply quantity (L)
Group A 500 to 1,000 36,000
1,001 to 2,000 72,000
2,001 to 5,000 144,000
Group B 500 to 1,000 72,000
1,001 to 2,000 144,000
Group C 5 L/m2 or 36,000 L at each location, whichever is greater
Table Notes

A single water supply with the minimum water quantity outlined in Table SA E1D2 can serve more than one building.

Insert SA figure (E1D2) as follows:
SA Figure E1D2: Location of hydrants, tanks, booster connections and dry risers
image-E1D2-location-of-hydrants-tanks-booster-connections-and-dry-risers-SA.svg

To require the installation of suitable fire hydrant systems to facilitate the fire brigade’s firefighting operations.

When required—E1D2(1)

Fire hydrants are needed to prevent the spread of fire between buildings and fire compartments. They are basically needed for fire brigade use and are not intended for use by occupants. Properly trained people and special equipment are needed for effective firefighting using a fire hydrant system.

The floor area of 500 mreferred to in E1D2(1)(a) represents the level of hazard which justifies the installation of a fire hydrant system.

If the building is located a substantial distance from a fire brigade station equipped to utilise fire hydrants, E1D2(1)(b) allows the building to be constructed without a fire hydrant system. The reasons for this are that the fire hydrants are intended for use only by a fire brigade and the benefit of fire brigade intervention during a building fire is expected to diminish with the passage of time.

AS 2419.1—E1D2(2)

Under E1D2(2), the installation of a fire hydrant system, including the associated water supply, pipe work, pumps, and so on, must be in accordance with AS 2419.1 subject to concessions granted under E1D2(3).

Clause 4.2 of AS 2419.1 requires a four hour water storage capacity for firefighting purposes. This clause does not apply to Class 8 electricity network substations where town main water supply cannot be connected and where at least one hour storage capacity of water for fire fighting purposes is provided. The reduced capacity is in recognition of the inherent fire mitigation measures such as boundary separation, vegetation removal programs, and perimeter access road protection associated with remotely located Class 8 electricity network substations. The nature of the initial fire response will also always require substation staff involvement prior to any fire brigade response. This removes the need for large water storage capacities usually associated with early intervention by the fire brigade.

Location—E1D2(3)

External fire hydrants are to be located in accordance with the requirements of AS 2419.1. Multiple buildings may be served by a single fire hydrant providing the proximity requirements of AS 2419.1 are met.

For internal fire hydrants, E1D2(4) generally requires the installation of internal fire hydrants on the storey they are to service. The reason for this is to eliminate running a fire hydrant hose up or down a stairway. Also, if the sole-occupancy units are in different ownership or leasehold, access between them may be difficult.

E1D2(4) grants a concession when a sole-occupancy unit occupies more than one storey. The concession is conditional on the fire hydrant being located at the level of egress from the sole-occupancy unit.

In the case of a Class 2 or Class 3 building or a Class 4 part, there is no limitation on the size or number of storeys within the sole-occupancy unit which can be served by the fire hydrant.

For Class 5 to Class 9 buildings the concession is limited to sole-occupancy units with only two storeys, where the fire hydrant at the entrance level provides total hose coverage. AS 2419.1 provides details of the required coverage.

If any conflict exists between AS 2419.1 and the BCA, then the BCA takes precedence. Additional information can be obtained by reference to the standard, includingit’s informative appendices.

AS 2419.1 provides the details for determining the number of fire hydrants required and where they should be located.

Pumpsets

Requirements for pumpsets, including the location of pumprooms, etc., is contained in AS 2419.1.

Water source, pressures and flows

The requirements for the water supply and source, and the required flows and pressure for the fire hydrant system to operate effectively are contained in AS 2419.1.

(1) E1D3 does not apply to—

  1. a Class 2, 3 or 5 building or Class 4 part of a building; or
  2. a Class 8 electricity network substation; or
  3. a Class 9c building; or
  4. classrooms and associated corridors in a primary or secondary school.

SA E1D3 Fire hose reels2019: E1.4

Delete subclause E1D3(1) and insert E1D3(1) as follows:

(1) E1D3 does not apply to—

  1. a Class 2, 3 or 5 building or Class 4 part of a building; or
  2. a Class 8 electricity network substation; or
  3. a Class 9c building; or
  4. classrooms and associated corridors in a primary or secondary school; or
  5. a farm building not used for hay storage exceeding 500 m2 or 1,000 m3; or
  6. a bulk grain storage facility.

(2) A fire hose reel system must be provided—

  1. to serve the whole building where one or more internal fire hydrants are installed; or
  2. where internal fire hydrants are not installed, to serve any fire compartment with a floor area greater than 500 m2.

(3) The fire hose reel system must—

  1. have fire hose reels installed in accordance with AS 2441; and
  2. provide fire hose reels to serve only the storey at which they are located, except a sole-occupancy unit of not more than 2 storeys in a Class 6, 7, 8 or 9 building may be served by a single fire hose reel located at the level of egress from that sole-occupancy unit provided the fire hose reel can provide coverage to the whole of the sole-occupancy unit.

(4) Fire hose reels must be located internally, externally or in combination, to achieve the system coverage specified in AS 2441.

(5) In achieving system coverage, one or a combination of the following criteria for individual internally located fire hose reels must be met in determining the layout of any fire hose reel system:

  1. Fire hose reels must be located adjacent to an internal fire hydrant (other than one within a fire-isolated exit), except that a fire hose reel need not be located adjacent to every fire hydrant, provided system coverage can be achieved.
  2. Fire hose reels must be located within 4 m of an exit, except that a fire hose reel need not be located adjacent to every exit, provided system coverage can be achieved.
  3. Where system coverage is not achieved by compliance with (a) and (b), additional fire hose reels may be located in paths of travel to an exit to achieve the required coverage.

(6) Fire hose reels must be located so that the fire hose will not need to pass through doorways fitted with fire or smoke doors, except—

  1. doorways in walls referred to in C3D6(1)(e) in a Class 9a building and C3D6(3)(d) in a Class 9c building, separating ancillary use areas of high potential fire hazard; and
  2. doorways in walls referred to in C3D13 or C3D14 separating equipment or electrical supply systems; and
  3. doorway openings to shafts referred to in C4D14.

(7) Where the normal water supply cannot achieve the flow and pressures required by AS 2441, or is unreliable—

  1. a pump; or
  2. water storage facility; or
  3. both a pump and water storage facility,

must be installed to provide the minimum flow and pressures required by clause 6.1 of AS 2441.

To require the installation of suitable fire hose reel systems to enable, where appropriate, a building’s occupants to undertake initial attack on a fire.

When required—E1D3(1)

Refer to E1P1 for the reasons why the BCA requires the installation of fire hose reels in buildings.

E1D3(1)(a) provides an exemption to the installation of fire hose reels in a Class 2, 3 or 5 building or Class 4 part of a building. However, it should be noted that portable fire extinguishers must be installed to cover Class A fire risks in accordance with E1D14.

E1D3(1)(b) provides an exemption to the installation of fire hose reels in Class 8 electricity network substations. The use of water as an extinguishing medium in electricity network substations can cause extensive damage to the electricity assets and create increased hazards for firefighters. The initial staff response to fire will always be through the more appropriate usage of portable fire extinguishers followed by evacuation.

E1D3(1)(c) does not require the installation of fire hose reels in a Class 9c building. It is recognised that occupants close to the point of ignition often provide the most effective means of extinguishing a small fire before it grows. In this case staff and visitors, if not some residents, can be effective in performing this function. To do so, they require appropriate means of extinguishment.

It is considered that the provision of portable extinguishers in a residential care building provides adequate means for staff and visitors to attack the fire. The additional level of fire safety associated with the provision of fire hose reels is not considered necessary.

It is not expected that the number of staff available in a residential care building will be adequate to both fight a growing fire with fire hose reels and evacuate residents. This is particularly the case when it is noted that the BCA provisions for residential care buildings are based on minimum staffing levels. When a fire becomes too large to be attacked with portable extinguishers, staff will be fully involved in closing doors and evacuating residents rather than fighting the fire.

E1D3(1)(d) does not require the installation of fire hose reels in classrooms and associated corridors of primary and secondary schools. However, it should be noted that where fire hose reels are not installed in these buildings, portable fire extinguishers must be installed in accordance with E1D14.

The concession not requiring the installation of fire hose reels in classrooms, etc is based on normal school use when teachers or school staff could be expected to be in control of students for the purpose of evacuation. Fire hose reels are required in other areas of the school such as halls, gymnasiums, etc where activities take place outside normal school hours and with outside organisations that are not under the control of teachers or school staff.

E1D3(2)(a) requires the installation of fire hose reels where internal fire hydrants are provided.

The 500 mfloor area referred to in E1D3(2)(b) represents the level of hazard which justifies the installation of fire hose reels to allow occupants the opportunity to attempt an initial attack on a fire.

System design—E1D3(3)

E1D3(3)(b) generally requires the installation of fire hose reels on the storey they are to service. This eliminates the need to run a fire hose up or down a stairway. Also, if the sole-occupancy units are in different ownership or leasehold, access between them may be difficult. It means that anyone using the fire hose will be able to get away quickly if the fire gets out of control.

E1D3(3)(b) grants a concession when a sole-occupancy unit in a Class 6–9 building occupies two storeys provided the fire hose reel can provide total hose coverage. The fire hose reel must also be located at the level of egress from the sole- occupancy unit.

E1D3(4)(5) and (6) relate to the positioning of fire hose reels to help occupants attack a fire in its early stages. These provisions emphasise the importance of the location of fire hose reels to ensure safety.

E1D3(4) ensures that fire hose reels are located to achieve the system coverage required by AS 2441. The fire hose reels can be located internally, externally or in any combination to achieve this coverage as set out in E1D3(5).

Fire hose reels are not permitted to be installed within a fire-isolated exit, thereby avoiding having the hose pass through the door to access the fire. Such an arrangement would require the exit to be open, and therefore cause a significant risk of smoke entering.

The same concerns do not apply to the other Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions listed in E1D3(6). In the cases listed below, the door may remain open for the hose to pass through.

  • C3D6(1)(e) deals with walls in Class 9a buildings which are required to separate ancillary areas located within a patient care area and containing equipment or materials that are a high potential fire hazard.
  • Likewise, C3D6(3)(d) deals with similar walls in Class 9c buildings.
  • C3D13 deals with the fire isolation of specified hazards and equipment such as lift motors, lift control panels, emergency generators, central smoke control plant, boilers and batteries.
  • C3D14 deals with doors to electricity substations, and the like.
  • C4D14 deals with openings in shafts.

E1D3(5) is applicable to individual fire hose reels, such that the choices offered in E1D3(5)(a)(b) or (c) are applied to the location of each hose reel in turn, to assure that coverage is achieved. However E1D3(5)(c) is only applicable when the application of E1D3(5)(a) or (b) does not achieve coverage.

The individual application means that when each hose reel is located adjacent to a hydrant or an exit, a check for coverage should be done before the next location is chosen.

Once coverage has been achieved, it is not necessary to install any more hose reels, even if additional exits or hydrants are provided for the storey.

Alternatively, if hose reels have been located adjacent to all relevant hydrants or exits without achieving coverage, E1D3(5)(c) permits the additional hose reels needed to achieve coverage to be located in a path of travel to an exit.

A sprinkler system must—

  1. be installed in a building or part of a building when required by E1D5 to E1D13 as applicable; and
  2. comply with Specification 17 and Specification 18 as applicable.

Notes

  1. See Specification 5 for use of sprinklers in Class 2 buildings and carparks generally.
  2. See Part E2 for use of sprinklers to satisfy smoke hazard management provisions.
  3. See C2D13 and Specification 5 for use of sprinklers in buildings where C2D13 is applied.

To require the installation of suitable fire sprinkler systems where necessary to address specific hazards.

When required

Refer to the comment on E1P4 for the reasons why the BCA requires the installation of sprinkler systems in buildings.

E1D5 to E1D13 set out when sprinklers are required in a building, while Specification 17 and Specification 18 set out the type of sprinkler system required and other technical details.

Specification 17 and Specification 18 allow the use of a residential sprinkler system in certain Class 2, 3, 9a and 9c buildings.

Sprinklers are required throughout the whole building if any part of the building has an effective height of more than 25 m—

  1. including an open-deck carpark within a multi-classified building; but
  2. excluding—
    1. an open-deck carpark being a separate building; and
    2. a Class 8 electricity network substation, with a floor area not more than 200 m2, located within a multi-classified building.

To require the installation of suitable fire sprinkler systems where necessary to address specific hazards.

E1D5 to E1D13

These provisions specify when sprinklers are required in a building and which parts of the building must be sprinkler protected. Unless a fire wall or other construction with the appropriate FRLs separates parts of a building required to have sprinklers from a part of a building not required to have sprinklers, then the sprinkler requirements must be applied to the whole building.

E1D5 requires all buildings with an effective height of more than 25 metres,except those which only contain an open-deck carpark, to be sprinkler protected. An exemption is also granted to smaller Class 8 electricity network substations within a multi-classified building as they are provided with additional fire protection measures to compensate for the removal of sprinklers. The provision regarding an effective height of 25 metres recognises the effective operating height for fire brigade ladders and other firefighting and rescue equipment.

E1D6 requires sprinkler protection to Class 2 or 3 buildings (excluding a residential care building — see other table items for residential care buildings) where the rise in storeys is 4 or more and the effective height is not more than 25 m. The requirements for these sprinkler systems are contained within Specification 17 and Specification 18.

The reference in E1D10 to a Class 9a health care building used as a residential care building makes it clear that where a Class 9a building is used as a residential care building as defined in Schedule 3, it must be fitted with a sprinkler system installed in accordance with AS 2118.1 or AS 2118.4.

To provide further clarification, a Class 9a health care building used as a residential care building must meet the BCA provisions that apply for a Class 9a health care building.

The definition of a health care building means a building whose occupants or patients undergoing medical treatment need physical assistance to evacuate the building during an emergency and includes a nursing home or similar facility for sick ordisabled persons needing full-time care. Therefore, a health care building could include a residential aged care building in which occupants are provided with some level of medication, and need assistance to evacuate.

(1) In a Class 2 or 3 building, or any multi-classified building containing a Class 2 or 3 part, sprinklers are required throughout the whole building if any part of the building has—

  1. a rise in storeys of 4 or more; and
  2. an effective height of not more than 25 m.

(2) The requirements of (1) do not apply to a residential care building.

To require the installation of suitable fire sprinkler systems where necessary to address specific hazards.

E1D5 to E1D13

These provisions specify when sprinklers are required in a building and which parts of the building must be sprinkler protected. Unless a fire wall or other construction with the appropriate FRLs separates parts of a building required to have sprinklers from a part of a building not required to have sprinklers, then the sprinkler requirements must be applied to the whole building.

E1D5 requires all buildings with an effective height of more than 25 metres,except those which only contain an open-deck carpark, to be sprinkler protected. An exemption is also granted to smaller Class 8 electricity network substations within a multi-classified building as they are provided with additional fire protection measures to compensate for the removal of sprinklers. The provision regarding an effective height of 25 metres recognises the effective operating height for fire brigade ladders and other firefighting and rescue equipment.

E1D6 requires sprinkler protection to Class 2 or 3 buildings (excluding a residential care building — see other table items for residential care buildings) where the rise in storeys is 4 or more and the effective height is not more than 25 m. The requirements for these sprinkler systems are contained within Specification 17 and Specification 18.

The reference in E1D10 to a Class 9a health care building used as a residential care building makes it clear that where a Class 9a building is used as a residential care building as defined in Schedule 3, it must be fitted with a sprinkler system installed in accordance with AS 2118.1 or AS 2118.4.

To provide further clarification, a Class 9a health care building used as a residential care building must meet the BCA provisions that apply for a Class 9a health care building.

The definition of a health care building means a building whose occupants or patients undergoing medical treatment need physical assistance to evacuate the building during an emergency and includes a nursing home or similar facility for sick ordisabled persons needing full-time care. Therefore, a health care building could include a residential aged care building in which occupants are provided with some level of medication, and need assistance to evacuate.

NCC Blurbs

Sprinklers are required throughout—

  1. a Class 3 building used as a residential care building; and
  2. any fire compartment containing a Class 3 part used for residential care; and
  3. any shared accommodation building.
NCC Title
Where sprinklers are required: Class 3 building
NCC State
VIC
NCC Variation Type
Replacement
NCC SPTC Current
Where sprinklers are required: Class 3 building

Sprinklers are required throughout a building containing—

  1. a Class 3 building used as a residential care building; and
  2. any fire compartment containing a Class 3 part used for residential care.

To require the installation of suitable fire sprinkler systems where necessary to address specific hazards.

E1D7 Where sprinklers are required: Class 3 building used as a residential care building

E1D5 to E1D13

These provisions specify when sprinklers are required in a building and which parts of the building must be sprinkler protected. Unless a fire wall or other construction with the appropriate FRLs separates parts of a building required to have sprinklers from a part of a building not required to have sprinklers, then the sprinkler requirements must be applied to the whole building.

E1D5 requires all buildings with an effective height of more than 25 metres,except those which only contain an open-deck carpark, to be sprinkler protected. An exemption is also granted to smaller Class 8 electricity network substations within a multi-classified building as they are provided with additional fire protection measures to compensate for the removal of sprinklers. The provision regarding an effective height of 25 metres recognises the effective operating height for fire brigade ladders and other firefighting and rescue equipment.

E1D6 requires sprinkler protection to Class 2 or 3 buildings (excluding a residential care building — see other table items for residential care buildings) where the rise in storeys is 4 or more and the effective height is not more than 25 m. The requirements for these sprinkler systems are contained within Specification 17 and Specification 18.

The reference in E1D10 to a Class 9a health care building used as a residential care building makes it clear that where a Class 9a building is used as a residential care building as defined in Schedule 3, it must be fitted with a sprinkler system installed in accordance with AS 2118.1 or AS 2118.4.

To provide further clarification, a Class 9a health care building used as a residential care building must meet the BCA provisions that apply for a Class 9a health care building.

The definition of a health care building means a building whose occupants or patients undergoing medical treatment need physical assistance to evacuate the building during an emergency and includes a nursing home or similar facility for sick ordisabled persons needing full-time care. Therefore, a health care building could include a residential aged care building in which occupants are provided with some level of medication, and need assistance to evacuate.

In a Class 6 building, sprinklers are required in fire compartments where either of the following apply:

  1. A floor area of more than 3 500 m2.
  2. A volume of more than 21 000 m3.

To require the installation of suitable fire sprinkler systems where necessary to address specific hazards.

E1D8 Where sprinklers are required: Class 6 building

E1D5 to E1D13

These provisions specify when sprinklers are required in a building and which parts of the building must be sprinkler protected. Unless a fire wall or other construction with the appropriate FRLs separates parts of a building required to have sprinklers from a part of a building not required to have sprinklers, then the sprinkler requirements must be applied to the whole building.

E1D5 requires all buildings with an effective height of more than 25 metres,except those which only contain an open-deck carpark, to be sprinkler protected. An exemption is also granted to smaller Class 8 electricity network substations within a multi-classified building as they are provided with additional fire protection measures to compensate for the removal of sprinklers. The provision regarding an effective height of 25 metres recognises the effective operating height for fire brigade ladders and other firefighting and rescue equipment.

E1D6 requires sprinkler protection to Class 2 or 3 buildings (excluding a residential care building — see other table items for residential care buildings) where the rise in storeys is 4 or more and the effective height is not more than 25 m. The requirements for these sprinkler systems are contained within Specification 17 and Specification 18.

The reference in E1D10 to a Class 9a health care building used as a residential care building makes it clear that where a Class 9a building is used as a residential care building as defined in Schedule 3, it must be fitted with a sprinkler system installed in accordance with AS 2118.1 or AS 2118.4.

To provide further clarification, a Class 9a health care building used as a residential care building must meet the BCA provisions that apply for a Class 9a health care building.

The definition of a health care building means a building whose occupants or patients undergoing medical treatment need physical assistance to evacuate the building during an emergency and includes a nursing home or similar facility for sick ordisabled persons needing full-time care. Therefore, a health care building could include a residential aged care building in which occupants are provided with some level of medication, and need assistance to evacuate.

In a Class 7a building, other than an open-deck carpark, sprinklers are required in fire compartments where more than 40 vehicles are accommodated.

To require the installation of suitable fire sprinkler systems where necessary to address specific hazards.

E1D9 Where sprinklers are required: Class 7a building, other than an open-deck carpark

E1D5 to E1D13

These provisions specify when sprinklers are required in a building and which parts of the building must be sprinkler protected. Unless a fire wall or other construction with the appropriate FRLs separates parts of a building required to have sprinklers from a part of a building not required to have sprinklers, then the sprinkler requirements must be applied to the whole building.

E1D5 requires all buildings with an effective height of more than 25 metres,except those which only contain an open-deck carpark, to be sprinkler protected. An exemption is also granted to smaller Class 8 electricity network substations within a multi-classified building as they are provided with additional fire protection measures to compensate for the removal of sprinklers. The provision regarding an effective height of 25 metres recognises the effective operating height for fire brigade ladders and other firefighting and rescue equipment.

E1D6 requires sprinkler protection to Class 2 or 3 buildings (excluding a residential care building — see other table items for residential care buildings) where the rise in storeys is 4 or more and the effective height is not more than 25 m. The requirements for these sprinkler systems are contained within Specification 17 and Specification 18.

The reference in E1D10 to a Class 9a health care building used as a residential care building makes it clear that where a Class 9a building is used as a residential care building as defined in Schedule 3, it must be fitted with a sprinkler system installed in accordance with AS 2118.1 or AS 2118.4.

To provide further clarification, a Class 9a health care building used as a residential care building must meet the BCA provisions that apply for a Class 9a health care building.

The definition of a health care building means a building whose occupants or patients undergoing medical treatment need physical assistance to evacuate the building during an emergency and includes a nursing home or similar facility for sick ordisabled persons needing full-time care. Therefore, a health care building could include a residential aged care building in which occupants are provided with some level of medication, and need assistance to evacuate.

NCC Blurbs

(1) In a Class 9a health-care building used as a residential care building, sprinklers are required throughout the building and in any fire compartment containing a Class 9a part used for residential care.

(2) In a Class 9a building, other than as described in (1), sprinklers are required if the building has more than one storey.

(3)  In a Class 9c building, sprinklers are required throughout the building and in any fire compartment containing a Class 9c part.

NCC Title
Where sprinklers are required: Class 9a and 9c buildings
NCC State
NT
NCC Variation Type
Replacement
NCC SPTC Current
Where sprinklers are required: Class 9a and 9c buildings

(1) In a Class 9a health-care building used as a residential care building, sprinklers are required throughout the building and in any fire compartment containing a Class 9a part used for residential care.

(2) In a Class 9c building, sprinklers are required throughout the building and in any fire compartment containing a Class 9c part.

To require the installation of suitable fire sprinkler systems where necessary to address specific hazards.

E1D10 Where sprinklers are required: Class 9a health-care building used as a residential care building and Class 9c buildings

E1D5 to E1D13

These provisions specify when sprinklers are required in a building and which parts of the building must be sprinkler protected. Unless a fire wall or other construction with the appropriate FRLs separates parts of a building required to have sprinklers from a part of a building not required to have sprinklers, then the sprinkler requirements must be applied to the whole building.

E1D5 requires all buildings with an effective height of more than 25 metres,except those which only contain an open-deck carpark, to be sprinkler protected. An exemption is also granted to smaller Class 8 electricity network substations within a multi-classified building as they are provided with additional fire protection measures to compensate for the removal of sprinklers. The provision regarding an effective height of 25 metres recognises the effective operating height for fire brigade ladders and other firefighting and rescue equipment.

E1D6 requires sprinkler protection to Class 2 or 3 buildings (excluding a residential care building — see other table items for residential care buildings) where the rise in storeys is 4 or more and the effective height is not more than 25 m. The requirements for these sprinkler systems are contained within Specification 17 and Specification 18.

The reference in E1D10 to a Class 9a health care building used as a residential care building makes it clear that where a Class 9a building is used as a residential care building as defined in Schedule 3, it must be fitted with a sprinkler system installed in accordance with AS 2118.1 or AS 2118.4.

To provide further clarification, a Class 9a health care building used as a residential care building must meet the BCA provisions that apply for a Class 9a health care building.

The definition of a health care building means a building whose occupants or patients undergoing medical treatment need physical assistance to evacuate the building during an emergency and includes a nursing home or similar facility for sick ordisabled persons needing full-time care. Therefore, a health care building could include a residential aged care building in which occupants are provided with some level of medication, and need assistance to evacuate.

(1) In a Class 9b building, other than an early childhood centre, see Part I1.

(2) In a Class 9b early childhood centre and in a building containing a Class 9b early childhood centre, sprinklers are required throughout the whole building, including any part of another class.

Exemptions

E1D11(2) does not apply to a Class 9b early childhood centre

  1. wholly within a storey that provides direct egress to a road or open space; or
  2. with a rise in storeys of not more than 2, where the Class 9b early childhood centre is the only use in the building.

To require the installation of suitable fire sprinkler systems where necessary to address specific hazards.

E1D11 Where sprinklers are required: Class 9b buildings

E1D5 to E1D13

These provisions specify when sprinklers are required in a building and which parts of the building must be sprinkler protected. Unless a fire wall or other construction with the appropriate FRLs separates parts of a building required to have sprinklers from a part of a building not required to have sprinklers, then the sprinkler requirements must be applied to the whole building.

E1D5 requires all buildings with an effective height of more than 25 metres,except those which only contain an open-deck carpark, to be sprinkler protected. An exemption is also granted to smaller Class 8 electricity network substations within a multi-classified building as they are provided with additional fire protection measures to compensate for the removal of sprinklers. The provision regarding an effective height of 25 metres recognises the effective operating height for fire brigade ladders and other firefighting and rescue equipment.

E1D6 requires sprinkler protection to Class 2 or 3 buildings (excluding a residential care building — see other table items for residential care buildings) where the rise in storeys is 4 or more and the effective height is not more than 25 m. The requirements for these sprinkler systems are contained within Specification 17 and Specification 18.

The reference in E1D10 to a Class 9a health care building used as a residential care building makes it clear that where a Class 9a building is used as a residential care building as defined in Schedule 3, it must be fitted with a sprinkler system installed in accordance with AS 2118.1 or AS 2118.4.

To provide further clarification, a Class 9a health care building used as a residential care building must meet the BCA provisions that apply for a Class 9a health care building.

The definition of a health care building means a building whose occupants or patients undergoing medical treatment need physical assistance to evacuate the building during an emergency and includes a nursing home or similar facility for sick ordisabled persons needing full-time care. Therefore, a health care building could include a residential aged care building in which occupants are provided with some level of medication, and need assistance to evacuate.

(1) For sprinkler requirements for atriums, see Part G3.

(2) For sprinkler requirements for large isolated buildings, see C3D4.

To require the installation of suitable fire sprinkler systems where necessary to address specific hazards.

E1D12 Where sprinklers are required: additional requirements

E1D5 to E1D13

These provisions specify when sprinklers are required in a building and which parts of the building must be sprinkler protected. Unless a fire wall or other construction with the appropriate FRLs separates parts of a building required to have sprinklers from a part of a building not required to have sprinklers, then the sprinkler requirements must be applied to the whole building.

E1D5 requires all buildings with an effective height of more than 25 metres,except those which only contain an open-deck carpark, to be sprinkler protected. An exemption is also granted to smaller Class 8 electricity network substations within a multi-classified building as they are provided with additional fire protection measures to compensate for the removal of sprinklers. The provision regarding an effective height of 25 metres recognises the effective operating height for fire brigade ladders and other firefighting and rescue equipment.

E1D6 requires sprinkler protection to Class 2 or 3 buildings (excluding a residential care building — see other table items for residential care buildings) where the rise in storeys is 4 or more and the effective height is not more than 25 m. The requirements for these sprinkler systems are contained within Specification 17 and Specification 18.

The reference in E1D10 to a Class 9a health care building used as a residential care building makes it clear that where a Class 9a building is used as a residential care building as defined in Schedule 3, it must be fitted with a sprinkler system installed in accordance with AS 2118.1 or AS 2118.4.

To provide further clarification, a Class 9a health care building used as a residential care building must meet the BCA provisions that apply for a Class 9a health care building.

The definition of a health care building means a building whose occupants or patients undergoing medical treatment need physical assistance to evacuate the building during an emergency and includes a nursing home or similar facility for sick ordisabled persons needing full-time care. Therefore, a health care building could include a residential aged care building in which occupants are provided with some level of medication, and need assistance to evacuate.

(1) In occupancies of excessive hazard, sprinklers are required in fire compartments where either of the following apply:

  1. A floor area of more than 2 000 m2.
  2. A volume of more than 12 000 m3.

(2) For the purposes of (1), occupancies of excessive fire hazard comprise buildings which contain—

  1. hazardous processes or storage including the following:
    1. Aircraft hangars.
    2. Cane furnishing manufacture, processing and storage.
    3. Fire-lighter and fireworks manufacture and warehousing.
    4. Foam plastic and foam plastic goods manufacture, processing and warehousing e.g. furniture factory.
    5. Hydrocarbon based sheet product, manufacture, processing and warehousing e.g. vinyl floor coverings.
    6. Woodwool and other flammable loose fibrous material manufacture.
  2. combustible goods with an aggregate volume exceeding 1000 m3 and stored to a height greater than 4 m including the following:
    1. Aerosol packs with flammable contents.
    2. Carpets and clothing.
    3. Electrical appliances.
    4. Combustible compressed fibreboards (low and high density) and plywoods.
    5. Combustible cartons, irrespective of content.
    6. Esparto and other fibrous combustible material.
    7. Furniture including timber, cane and composite, where foamed rubber or plastics are incorporated.
    8. Paper storage (all forms of new or waste) e.g. bales, sheet, horizontal or vertical rolls, waxed coated or processed.
    9. Textiles raw and finished, e.g. rolled cloth, clothing and manchester.
    10. Timber storage including sheets, planks, boards, joists and cut sizes.
    11. Vinyl, plastic, foamed plastic, rubber and other combustible sheets, offcuts and random pieces and rolled material storage, e.g. carpet, tar paper, linoleum, wood veneer and foam mattresses.
    12. All materials having wrappings or preformed containers of foamed plastics.

VIC E1D13 Where sprinklers are required: occupancies of excessive hazard2019: Table E1.5 (Note 4)

Delete subclause E1D13(2) and insert E1D13(2) as follows:

(2) For the purposes of (1), occupancies of excessive fire hazard comprise buildings which contain—

  1. hazardous process risks including the following:
    1. Aircraft hangars.
    2. Electrical/electronic manufacturing and assembly (predominantly plastic components).
    3. Fire-lighter manufacturing.
    4. Fireworks manufacturing.
    5. Flammable liquid spraying.
    6. Foam plastic goods manufacturing and/or processing.
    7. Foam rubber goods manufacturing and/or processing.
    8. Hydrocarbon based sheet product manufacturing and/or processing.
    9. Nitrocellulose and nitrocellulose goods manufacturing.
    10. Paint and varnish works, solvent based.
    11. Plastic goods manufacturing and/or processing works.
    12. Resin and turpentine manufacturing.
    13. Vehicle repair shops.
  2. combustible goods with an aggregate volume exceeding 2000 m3 and stored to a height greater than 4 m such as the following:
    1. Aerosol packs with flammable contents.
    2. Cartons and associated packing material excluding cartons with densely packed non-combustible content.
    3. Electrical appliances where the components are predominantly plastic.
    4. Foamed rubber or plastics including wrappings or preformed containers.
    5. Paper products.
    6. Plastic, rubber, vinyl and other sheets in the form of offcuts, random pieces or rolls.
    7. Textiles raw and finished.
    8. Timber products.

To require the installation of suitable fire sprinkler systems where necessary to address specific hazards.

E1D13 Where sprinklers are required: occupancies of excessive hazard

E1D5 to E1D13

These provisions specify when sprinklers are required in a building and which parts of the building must be sprinkler protected. Unless a fire wall or other construction with the appropriate FRLs separates parts of a building required to have sprinklers from a part of a building not required to have sprinklers, then the sprinkler requirements must be applied to the whole building.

E1D5 requires all buildings with an effective height of more than 25 metres,except those which only contain an open-deck carpark, to be sprinkler protected. An exemption is also granted to smaller Class 8 electricity network substations within a multi-classified building as they are provided with additional fire protection measures to compensate for the removal of sprinklers. The provision regarding an effective height of 25 metres recognises the effective operating height for fire brigade ladders and other firefighting and rescue equipment.

E1D6 requires sprinkler protection to Class 2 or 3 buildings (excluding a residential care building — see other table items for residential care buildings) where the rise in storeys is 4 or more and the effective height is not more than 25 m. The requirements for these sprinkler systems are contained within Specification 17 and Specification 18.

The reference in E1D10 to a Class 9a health care building used as a residential care building makes it clear that where a Class 9a building is used as a residential care building as defined in Schedule 3, it must be fitted with a sprinkler system installed in accordance with AS 2118.1 or AS 2118.4.

To provide further clarification, a Class 9a health care building used as a residential care building must meet the BCA provisions that apply for a Class 9a health care building.

The definition of a health care building means a building whose occupants or patients undergoing medical treatment need physical assistance to evacuate the building during an emergency and includes a nursing home or similar facility for sick ordisabled persons needing full-time care. Therefore, a health care building could include a residential aged care building in which occupants are provided with some level of medication, and need assistance to evacuate.

(1) Portable fire extinguishers must be—

  1. provided as listed in (3) and (4); and
  2. for a Class 2, 3 or 5 building or Class 4 part of a building, provided—
    1. to serve the whole Class 2, 3 or 5 building or Class 4 part of a building where one or more internal fire hydrants are installed; or
    2. where internal fire hydrants are not installed, to serve any fire compartment with a floor area greater than 500 m2, and for the purposes of this clause, a sole-occupancy unit in a Class 2 or 3 building or Class 4 part of a building is considered to be a fire compartment; and
  3. subject to (2), selected, located and distributed in accordance with Sections 1, 2, 3 and 4 of AS 2444.

(2) Portable fire extinguishers provided in a Class 2 or 3 building or Class 4 part of a building must be—

  1. an ABE type fire extinguisher; and
  2. a minimum size of 2.5 kg; and
  3. distributed outside a sole-occupancy unit
    1. to serve only the storey at which they are located; and
    2. so that the travel distance from the entrance doorway of any sole-occupancy unit to the nearest fire extinguisher is not more than 10 m.

(3) In Class 2 to 9 buildings (except within sole-occupancy units of a Class 9c building), portable fire extinguishers must be provided as follows:

  1. To cover Class AE or E fire risks associated with emergency services switchboards.
  2. To cover Class F fire risks involving cooking oils and fats in kitchens.
  3. To cover Class B fire risks in locations where flammable liquids in excess of 50 litres are stored or used (not including that held in fuel tanks of vehicles).
  4. To cover Class A fire risks in normally occupied fire compartments less than 500 m2 not provided with fire hose reels (excluding open-deck carparks).
  5. To cover Class A fire risks in classrooms and associated corridors in primary and secondary schools not provided with fire hose reels.
  6. To cover Class A fire risks associated with a Class 2, 3 or 5 building or Class 4 part of a building.

(4) In addition to the requirements of (3), portable fire extinguishers must be provided to cover Class A and E fire risks in the following occupancies in buildings, or parts of a building:

  1. A Class 9a health-care building, including a Class 9a building used as a residential care building.
  2. Class 3 parts of detention and correctional occupancies.
  3. Class 3 accommodation for children, aged persons and people with disabilities, including a Class 3 building used as a residential care building.
  4. A Class 9c building.

(5) For the purposes of (3) and (4):

  1. Fire risks are defined in accordance with AS 2444.
  2. An emergency services switchboard is one which sustains emergency equipment operating in the emergency mode.
  3. Additional extinguishers may be required to cover fire risks in relation to special hazards provided for in E1D17.
  4. The fire risks in a Class 2 or 3 building or Class 4 part of a building must include risks within any sole-occupancy units, however portable fire extinguishers are not required to be located within a sole-occupancy unit unless the sole-occupancy unit has a floor area greater than 500 m2.

(6) For the purposes of (4), where applicable, a Class E fire extinguisher need only be located at each nurses’ station, supervisors’ station or the like.

SA E1D14 Portable fire extinguishers2019: E1.6 and Table E1.6

Insert SA subclause E1D14(7) in clause E1D14 as follows:

(7) For Class A fire risks in a farm building the requirements of (1) need not be provided if—

  1. portable fire extinguishers for Class A fire risks are provided in accordance with SA E1D14(8); or
  2. notwithstanding the exemption provided by SA E1D3(1)(e), a fire hose reel system is provided in accordance with E1D3, or wash-down hoses or similar hoses that are—
    1. not more than 36 m long; and
    2. equipped with a spray nozzle suitable for fighting a fire at the incipient stage; and
    3. permanently connected to a water supply which is sufficient to supply two hoses discharging at the rate of 20 litres per minute for 60 minutes; and
    4. arranged to provide coverage to all points on the floor within.

SA E1D14 Portable fire extinguishers2019: E1.6 and Table E1.6

Insert SA subclause E1D14(8) in clause E1D14 as follows:

(8) Portable fire extinguishers provided to comply with SA E1D14(7)(a) must be—

  1. located at or adjacent to every required exit; or
  2. in open walled farm buildings, one extinguisher is provided for every 500 m2 of floor area, or part thereof.

To require the installation of suitable portable fire extinguishers, where necessary, to address specific hazards.

When required

Refer to the comment on E1P2 for the reasons why the NCC requires the installation of portable fire extinguishers in buildings.

E1D14(1)(a) requires portable fire extinguishers to be provided as listed in E1D14(3) and (4).

For a Class 2, 3 or 5 building or Class 4 part of a building, E1D14(1)(b) requires portable fire extinguishers to only be provided—

  • E1D14(1)(b)(i)—to serve the whole Class 2, 3 or 5 building or Class 4 part of a building where internal fire hydrants are installed; or
  • E1D14(1)(b)(ii)—where internal fire hydrants are not installed, to serve any fire compartment with a floor area greater 500 m2. For the purposes of this clause, a sole-occupancy unit in a Class 2 or 3 building or Class 4 part of a building is considered a fire compartment. The 500 mfloor area represents the level of hazard which justifies the installation of portable fire extinguishers to allow occupants the opportunity to attempt an initial attack on a fire.

Subject to E1D14(2)E1D14(1)(c) requires portable fire extinguishers to be installed in accordance with Sections 1, 2, 3 and 4 of AS 2444. The other sections of AS 2444 deal with “Selection and distribution of portable fire extinguishers in vehicles and small craft” and “Selection and location of fire blankets”, neither of which are applicable to the BCA. If any conflict exists between AS 2444 and the BCA, then the BCA takes precedence. Additional information can be obtained by reference to the Standard.

E1D14(2) details specific requirements about the type, size and installation of portable fire extinguishers provided in a Class 2 or 3 building or Class 4 part of a building.

E1D14(3) and (4) set out when portable fire extinguishers are required in a building and the class of extinguisher to be used.

It should be noted that E1D14(3) and (4) require the installation of fire extinguishers in classrooms and associated corridors in primary and secondary schools not provided with fire hose reels. The reason for this requirement is that E1D3(1)(d) does not require the installation of fire hose reels in these buildings, even if the floor area of a fire compartment exceeds 500 m2.

A fire control centre facility in accordance with Specification 19 must be provided for—

  1. a building with an effective height of more than 25 m; and
  2. a Class 6, 7, 8 or 9 building with a total floor area of more than 18 000 m2.

To require the provision of suitable fire control centres to facilitate fire brigade operations.

When required

Refer to the comment on E1P6 for the reasons why the BCA requires the installation of fire control centres in buildings.

E1D15(a) requires all buildings with an effective height of more than 25 metres to be provided with a fire control centre. Because of their height these buildings require special co-ordination of fire brigade operations. The E1D14(a) reference to an effective height of 25 metres recognises the operating height for fire brigade ladders and other firefighting and rescue equipment.

E1D15(b) requires a fire control centre for Class 6–9 buildings with a total floor area of more than 18 000 m2.

The measurement concerned is of the total building floor area, not the area of an individual sole-occupancy unit or fire compartment.

Class 6 and Class 9 buildings have been included because of their high potential fire load, and the likelihood of large populations unfamiliar with their layout or evacuation procedures.

Class 7 and Class 8 buildings have been included because of the potential size and severity of fires in such buildings. Specification 19 sets out the construction details of such a centre and the facilities it must contain.

In a building under construction—

  1. not less than one fire extinguisher to suit Class A, B and C fires and electrical fires must be provided at all times on each storey adjacent to each required exit or temporary stairway or exit; and
  2. after the building has reached an effective height of 12 m—
    1. the required fire hydrants and fire hose reels must be operational in at least every storey that is covered by the roof or the floor structure above, except the 2 uppermost storeys; and
    2. any required booster connections must be installed.

To require adequate firefighting equipment within a building during its construction.

When required

Refer to the comment on E1P5 for the reasons why the BCA requires the installation of firefighting equipment in buildings during their construction.

E1D16(a) requires the installation of suitable fire extinguishers in all buildings under construction. They are to be placed adjacent to exits on each storey so that they can be easily found by workers if a fire occurs.

Once a building reaches a height of about 12 metres, firefighting in a building under construction becomes increasingly difficult. The installation of fire hydrants, fire hose reels and booster connections (required under E1D16(b)) assist in overcoming such difficulties. The fire hydrants and fire hose reels are not required on the two upper floors because services such as water supply may not be installed. Also, if a fire occurred on these floors, it could be fought from the floors below.

Suitable additional provision must be made if special problems of fighting fire could arise because of—

  1. the nature or quantity of materials stored, displayed or used in a building or on the allotment; or
  2. the location of the building in relation to a water supply for fire-fighting purposes.

To require the installation of additional fire safety measures where special hazards exist.

When required

The other Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions of Part E1 set out the required firefighting equipment and co-ordination facilities required in a building to deal with “expected” or “usual” hazards. However, it is not possible to take account of every possible hazard. E1D17 may even require additional provision for special hazards where Part E1 does not otherwise apply.

Additional provision for special hazards must be made to allow for effective firefighting operations taking into consideration:

  • the nature of the materials stored, displayed or used in the building or on the allotment; or
  • inadequate water supply for firefighting.   
     

Examples   
Special fire hazards may exist for hazards under E1D17(a) in a warehouse used to store highly volatile or combustible materials, and also, at a site where highly combustible chemicals are manufactured. Hazards under E1D17(b) may include sites where little or no water is available for firefighting. 

The BCA Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions do not specify what the special provisions must be. Each case must be assessed on its own merits.

NCC Blurbs

An automatic fire detection and alarm system must comply with S20C4 and S20C8.

NCC Title
Fire detection and alarm system
NCC State
TAS
NCC Variation Type
Insertion
NCC SPTC Current
Fire detection and alarm system

Explanatory information: Cross-volume considerations

Part B4 of NCC Volume Three sets out the requirements for access for maintenance of fire-fighting water services.