NCC 2022 Volume One - Building Code of Australia Class 2 to 9 buildings

D3

Part D3 Construction of exits

Part D3 Construction of exits

Introduction to this Part

This Part contains Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions for Part D1. It covers safety aspects of parts of a building including stairways, ramps, handrails, balustrades, fall prevention barriers and operation of doors that are part of an exit. It also covers fall prevention requirements for openable windows.

Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions

(1) Where a Deemed-to-Satisfy Solution is proposed, Performance Requirements D1P1 to D1P6, D1P8 and D1P9 are satisfied by complying with—

  1. D2D2 to D2D23, D3D2 to D3D30 and D4D2 to D4D13; and
  2. in a building containing an atrium, Part G3; and
  3. in a building in an alpine area, Part G4; and
  4. for a building containing an occupiable outdoor area, Part G6; and
  5. for additional requirements for Class 9b buildings, Part I1; and
  6. for public transport buildings, Part I2; and
  7. for farm buildings and farm sheds, Part I3.

(2) Where a Performance Solution is proposed the relevant Performance Requirements must be determined in accordance with A2G2(3) and A2G4(3) as applicable.

(3) Performance RequirementD1P7 must be complied with if lifts are to be used to assist occupants to evacuate a building.

Notes

There are no Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions for D1P7 in respect of using lifts to assist occupants to evacuate a building.

NCC Blurbs

(1) Except for—

  1. D3D14, D3D15(a), D3D17, D3D18, D3D19, D3D20, D3D22(5), D3D22(6), D3D26 and D3D29, the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions of this Part do not apply to the internal parts of a sole-occupancy unit in a Class 3 building; and
  2. D3D14, D3D15(a), D3D17, D3D18, D3D19, D3D20, D3D22(5), D3D22(6), D3D23 and D3D29, the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions of this Part do not apply to the internal parts of a sole-occupancy unit in a Class 2 building or Class 4 part of a building.

(2) In a Class 9b building used as an entertainment venue

  1. Clauses NSW D3D14(1)(i), (j), and (k), NSW D3D16(d), NSW D3D18(1)(d), and NSW D3D24(2)(e) apply to only those parts of the building used by the public; and
  2. the general requirements of Part D3 apply to all other parts of the building.
NCC Title

Application of Part

NCC State
NSW
NCC Variation Type
Replacement
NCC SPTC Current
Application of Part

Except for—

  1. D3D14, D3D15(a), D3D17, D3D18, D3D19, D3D20, D3D21, D3D22(5), D3D22(6), D3D26 and D3D29, the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions of this Part do not apply to the internal parts of a sole-occupancy unit in a Class 3 building; and
  2. D3D14, D3D15(a), D3D17, D3D18, D3D19, D3D20, D3D21, D3D22(5), D3D22(6), D3D23 and D3D29, the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions of this Part do not apply to the internal parts of a sole-occupancy unit in a Class 2 building or Class 4 part of a building.

A stairway or ramp (including any landings) that is required to be within a fire-resisting shaft must be constructed—

  1. of non-combustible materials; and
  2. so that if there is local failure it will not cause structural damage to, or impair the fire-resistance of, the shaft.

In a building having a rise in storeys of more than 2, required stairs and ramps (including landings and any supporting building elements) which are not required to be within a fire-resisting shaft, must be constructed according to D3D3, or only of—

  1. reinforced or prestressed concrete; or
  2. steel in no part less than 6 mm thick; or
  3. timber that—
    1. has a finished thickness of not less than 44 mm; and
    2. has an average density of not less than 800 kg/m3 at a moisture content of 12%; and
    3. has not been joined by means of glue unless it has been laminated and glued with resorcinol formaldehyde or resorcinol phenol formaldehyde glue.

If a stairway serving as an exit is required to be fire-isolated—

  1. there must be no direct connection between—
    1. a flight rising from a storey below the lowest level of access to a road or open space; and
    2. a flight descending from a storey above that level; and
  2. any construction that separates or is common to the rising and descending flights must be—
    1. non-combustible; and
    2. smoke proof in accordance with S11C2.

Where an open access ramp or balcony is provided to meet the smoke hazard management requirements of E2D4 to E2D13, it must—

  1. have ventilation openings to the outside air which—
    1. have a total unobstructed area not less than the floor area of the ramp or balcony; and
    2. are evenly distributed along the open sides of the ramp or balcony; and
  2. not be enclosed on its open sides above a height of 1 m except by an open grille or the like having a free air space of not less than 75% of its area.

A smoke lobby required by D2D12 must—

  1. have a floor area not less than 6 m2; and
  2. be separated from the occupied areas in the storey by walls which are impervious to smoke, and—
    1. have an FRL of not less than 60/60/– (which may be fire-protective grade plasterboard, gypsum block with set plaster, face brickwork, glass blocks or glazing); and
    2. extend from slab to slab, or to the underside of a ceiling with a resistance to the incipient spread of fire of 60 minutes which covers the lobby; and
    3. any construction joints between the top of the walls and the floor slab, roof or ceiling must be smoke sealed with intumescent putty or other suitable material; and
  3. at any opening from the occupied areas, have smoke doors complying with S12C3 and S12C4 except that the smoke sensing device need only be located on the approach side of the opening; and
  4. be pressurised as part of the exit if the exit is required to be pressurised under E2D3.

(1) Access to service shafts and services other than to fire-fighting or detection equipment as permitted in the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions of Section E, must not be provided from a fire-isolated stairway, fire-isolated passageway or fire-isolated ramp.

(2) An opening to any chute or duct intended to convey hot products of combustion from a boiler, incinerator, fireplace or the like, must not be located in any part of a required exit or any corridor, hallway, lobby or the like leading to a required exit.

(3) Gas or other fuel services must not be installed in a required exit.

(4) Except for in a fire-isolated exit specified in (1), services or equipment enclosed in accordance with (5) may be installed in a required exit, or in any corridor, hallway, lobby or the like leading to a required exit, where that service or equipment comprises—

  1. electricity meters, distribution boards or ducts; or
  2. central telecommunications distribution boards or equipment; or
  3. electrical motors or other motors serving equipment in the building.

(5) An enclosure for the purposes of (4) must be suitably sealed against smoke spreading from the enclosure and be—

  1. non-combustible construction; or
  2. a fire-protective covering.

(6) Electrical wiring may be installed in a fire-isolated exit if the wiring is associated with—

  1. a lighting, detection, or pressurisation system serving the exit; or
  2. a security, surveillance or management system serving the exit; or
  3. an intercommunication system or an audible or visual alarm system in accordance with D3D27; or
  4. the monitoring of hydrant or sprinkler isolating valves.

(1) Fire-isolated stairways and ramps — If the space below a required fire-isolated stairway or fire-isolated ramp is within the fire-isolated shaft, it must not be enclosed to form a cupboard or similar enclosed space.

(2) Non fire-isolated stairways and ramps — The space below a required non fire-isolated stairway (including an external stairway) or non fire-isolated ramp must not be enclosed to form a cupboard or other enclosed space unless—

  1. the enclosing walls and ceilings have an FRL of not less than 60/60/60; and
  2. any access doorway to the enclosed space is fitted with a self-closing –/60/30 fire door.

A required stairway or ramp that exceeds 2 m in width is counted as having a width of only 2 m unless it is divided by a handrail or barrier continuous between landings and each division has a width of not more than 2 m.

(1) A fire-isolated ramp may be substituted for a fire-isolated stairway if the construction enclosing the ramp and the width and ceiling height comply with the requirements for a fire-isolated stairway.

(2) A ramp serving as a required exit must—

  1. where the ramp is also serving as an accessible ramp under Part D4, be in accordance with AS 1428.1; or
  2. in any other case, have a gradient not steeper than 1:8.

(3) The floor surface of a ramp must have a slip-resistance classification not less than that listed in Table D3D15 when tested in accordance with AS 4586.

(1) The enclosing construction of a fire-isolated passageway must have an FRL when tested for a fire outside the passageway in another part of the building of—

  1. if the passageway discharges from a fire-isolated stairway or ramp — not less than that required for the stairway or ramp shaft; or
  2. in any other case — not less than 60/60/60.

(2) Notwithstanding (1)(b), the top construction of a fire-isolated passageway need not have an FRL if the walls of the fire-isolated passageway extend to the underside of—

  1. a non-combustible roof covering; or
  2. a ceiling having a resistance to the incipient spread of fire of not less than 60 minutes separating the roof space or ceiling space in all areas surrounding the passageway within the fire compartment.

If an exit discharges to a roof of a building, the roof must—

  1. have an FRL of not less than 120/120/120; and
  2. not have any roof lights or other openings within 3 m of the path of travel of persons using the exit to reach a road or open space.

(1) A stairway must have—

  1. not more than 18 and not less than 2 risers in each flight; and
  2. going (G), riser (R) and quantity (2R + G) in accordance with Table D3D14, except as permitted by (2) and (3); and
  3. constant goings and risers throughout each flight, except as permitted by (2) and (3), and the dimensions of goings (G) and risers (R) in accordance with (1)(b) are considered constant if the variation between—
    1. adjacent risers, or between adjacent goings, is no greater than 5 mm; and
    2. the largest and smallest riser within a flight, or the largest and smallest going within a flight, does not exceed 10 mm; and
  4. risers which do not have any openings that would allow a 125 mm sphere to pass through between the treads; and
  5. treads which have—
    1. a surface with a slip-resistance classification not less than that listed in Table D3D15 when tested in accordance with AS 4586; or
    2. a nosing strip with a slip-resistance classification not less than that listed in Table D3D15 when tested in accordance with AS 4586; and
  6. treads of solid construction (not mesh or other perforated material) if the stairway is more than 10 m high or connects more than 3 storeys; and
  7. in a Class 9b building, not more than 36 risers in consecutive flights without a change in direction of at least 30°; and
  8. in the case of a required stairway, no winders in lieu of a landing.

NSW D3D14 Goings and risers2019: D2.13

Delete subclause D3D14(1) and insert D3D14(1) as follows:

(1) A stairway must have—

  1. not more than 18 and not less than 2 risers in each flight; and
  2. going (G), riser (R) and quantity (2R + G) in accordance with Table D3D14, except as permitted by (2) and (3); and
  3. constant goings and risers throughout each flight, except as permitted by (2) and (3), and the dimensions of goings (G) and risers (R) in accordance with (1)(b) are considered constant if the variation between—
    1. adjacent risers, or between adjacent goings, is no greater than 5 mm; and
    2. the largest and smallest riser within a flight, or the largest and smallest going within a flight, does not exceed 10 mm; and
  4. risers which do not have any openings that would allow a 125 mm sphere to pass through between the treads; and
  5. treads which have—
    1. a surface with a slip-resistance classification not less than that listed in Table D3D15 when tested in accordance with AS 4586; or
    2. a nosing strip with a slip-resistance classification not less than that listed in Table D3D15 when tested in accordance with AS 4586; and
  6. treads of solid construction (not mesh or other perforated material) if the stairway is more than 10 m high or connects more than 3 storeys; and
  7. in a Class 9b building, not more than 36 risers in consecutive flights without a change in direction of at least 30°; and
  8. in the case of a required stairway, no winders in lieu of a landing; and
  9. conspicuous edges to the treads of steps in a Class 9b building used as an entertainment venue; and
  10. in a Class 9b building used as an entertainment venue, not more than one helical stairway serving as a required exit and that stairway must—
    1. have a width of not less than 1500 mm; and
    2. be of constant radius; and
    3. be constructed so that each tread, when measured 500 mm in from its narrow end, has a width of at least 280 mm; and
  11. in a Class 9b building used as an entertainment venue, in a curved stairway serving as a required exit — an internal radius of not less than twice the width of the stair.

(2) In the case of a non-required stairway—

  1. the stairway must have—
    1. not more than 3 winders in lieu of a quarter landing; and
    2. not more than 6 winders in lieu of a half landing; and
  2. the going of all straight treads must be constant throughout the same flight and the dimensions of goings (G) is considered constant if the variation between—
    1. adjacent goings, is no greater than 5 mm; and
    2. the largest and smallest going within a flight, does not exceed 10 mm; and
  3. the going of all winders in lieu of a quarter or half landing may vary from the going of the straight treads within the same flight provided that the going of all such winders is constant.

(3) Where a stairway discharges to a sloping public walkway or public road—

  1. the riser (R) may be reduced to account for the slope of the walkway or road; and
  2. the quantity (2R+G) may vary at that location.
Table D3D14 Riser and going dimensions
Stairway location Riser (R) Going (G)Note 3 Quantity (2R + G)
Max Min Max Min Max Min
Public 190 115 355 250 700 550
Private Note 1 190 115 355 240 700 550
Table Notes
  1. Private stairways are—
    1. stairways in a sole-occupancy unit in a Class 2 building or Class 4 part of a building; and
    2. in any building, stairways which are not part of a required exit and to which the public do not normally have access.
  2. Going and riser dimensions must be measured in accordance with Figure D3D14.
  3. The going in tapered treads (except winders in lieu of a quarter or half landing) in a curved or spiral stairway is measured—
    1. 270 mm in from the outer side of the unobstructed width of the stairway if the stairway is less than 1 m wide (applicable to a non-required stairway only); and
    2. 270 mm from each side of the unobstructed width of the stairway if the stairway is 1 m wide or more.
Figure D3D14 Riser and going dimensions
image-D3D14-riser-and-going-dimensions.svg

In a stairway—

  1. landings having a maximum gradient of 1:50 may be used in any building to limit the number of risers in each flight and each landing must—
    1. be not less than 750 mm long, and where this involves a change in direction, the length is measured 500 mm from the inside edge of the landing; and
    2. have—
      1. a surface with a slip-resistance classification not less than that listed in Table D3D15 when tested in accordance with AS 4586; or
      2. a strip at the edge of the landing with a slip-resistance classification not less than that listed in Table D3D15 when tested in accordance with AS 4586, where the edge leads to a flight below; and
  2. in a Class 9a building—
    1. the area of any landing must be sufficient to move a stretcher, 2 m long and 600 mm wide, at a gradient not more than the gradient of the stairs, with at least one end of the stretcher on the landing while changing direction between flights; or
    2. the stair must have a change of direction of 180°, and the landing a clear width of not less than 1.6 m and a clear length of not less than 2.7 m.
Table D3D15 Slip-resistance classification
Application Dry surface conditions Wet surface conditions
Ramp steeper than 1:14 P4 or R11 P5 or R12
Ramp steeper than 1:20 but not steeper than 1:14 P3 or R10 P4 or R11
Tread or landing surface P3 or R10 P4 or R11
Nosing or landing edge strip P3 P4
NCC Blurbs

(1) The threshold of a doorway must not incorporate a step or ramp at any point closer to the doorway than the width of the door leaf unless—

  1. in patient care areas in a Class 9a health-care building, the door sill is not more than 25 mm above the finished floor level to which the doorway opens; or
  2. in resident use areas a Class 9c building, a ramp is provided with a maximum gradient of 1:8 for a maximum height of 25 mm over the threshold; or
  3. in a building required to be accessible by Part D4, the doorway—
    1. opens to a road or open space; and
    2. is provided with a threshold ramp or step ramp in accordance with AS 1428.1; or
  4. in other cases—
    1. the doorway opens to a road or open space, external stair landing or external balcony; and
    2. the door sill is not more than 190 mm above the finished surface of the ground, balcony, or the like, to which the doorway opens.

(2) Notwithstanding the requirements of (1), where necessary due to the operational requirements of the building, a doorway serving a farm building may incorporate a step that is no more than 700 mm above the finished floor level.

NCC Title

Thresholds

NCC State
SA
NCC Variation Type
Replacement
NCC SPTC Current
Thresholds
NCC Blurbs

The threshold of a doorway must not incorporate a step or ramp at any point closer to the doorway than the width of the door leaf unless—

  1. in patient care areas in a Class 9a health-care building, the door sill is not more than 25 mm above the finished floor level to which the doorway opens; or
  2. in resident use areas in a Class 9c building, a ramp is provided with a maximum gradient of 1:8 for a maximum height of 25 mm over the threshold; or
  3. in a building required to be accessible by Part D4, the doorway—
    1. opens to a road or open space; and
    2. is provided with a threshold ramp or step ramp in accordance with AS 1428.1; or
  4. in a Class 9b building used as an entertainment venue, the door sill of a doorway opening to a road, open space, external stair landing or external balcony is not more than 50 mm above the finished floor level to which the doorway opens; or
  5. in other cases—
    1. the doorway opens to a road or open space, external stair landing or external balcony; and
    2. the door sill is not more than 190 mm above the finished surface of the ground, balcony, or the like, to which the doorway opens.
NCC Title

Thresholds

NCC State
NSW
NCC Variation Type
Replacement
NCC SPTC Current
Thresholds

The threshold of a doorway must not incorporate a step or ramp at any point closer to the doorway than the width of the door leaf unless—

  1. in patient care areas in a Class 9a health-care building, the door sill is not more than 25 mm above the finished floor level to which the doorway opens; or
  2. in resident use areas in a Class 9c building, a ramp is provided with a maximum gradient of 1:8 for a maximum height of 25 mm over the threshold; or
  3. in a building required to be accessible by Part D4, the doorway—
    1. opens to a road or open space; and
    2. is provided with a threshold ramp or step ramp in accordance with AS 1428.1; or
  4. in other cases—
    1. the doorway opens to a road or open space, external stair landing or external balcony; and
    2. the door sill is not more than 190 mm above the finished surface of the ground, balcony, or the like, to which the doorway opens.

(1) A continuous barrier must be provided along the side of—

  1. a roof to which general access is provided; and
  2. a stairway or ramp; and
  3. a floor, corridor, hallway, balcony, deck, verandah, mezzanine, access bridge or the like; and
  4. any delineated path of access to a building,

if the trafficable surface is 1 m or more above the surface beneath.

(2) The requirements of (1) do not apply to—

  1. the perimeter of a stage, rigging loft, loading dock or the like; or
  2. areas referred to in D3D23; or
  3. a retaining wall, unless the retaining wall forms part of, or is directly associated with a delineated path of access to a building from the road, or a delineated path of access between buildings; or
  4. a barrier provided to an openable window covered by D3D29.

(3) A barrier required by (1) must be constructed in accordance with D3D18, D3D19, D3D20 and, if a wire barrier is used, D3D21.

(1) The height of a barrier required by D3D17 must be not less than the following:

  1. For stairways or ramps with a gradient of 1:20 or steeper — 865 mm.
  2. For landings to a stair or ramp where the barrier is provided along the inside edge of the landing and does not exceed 500 mm in length — 865 mm.
  3. In front of fixed seating on a mezzanine or balcony within an auditorium in a Class 9b building, where the horizontal projection extends not less than 1 m outwards from the top of the barrier — 700 mm.
  4. For all other locations — 1 m.

NSW D3D18 Height of barriers2019: Table D2.16a

Delete subclause D3D18(1) and insert D3D18(1) as follows:

(1) The height of a barrier required by D3D17 must be not less than the following:

  1. For stairways or ramps with a gradient of 1:20 or steeper — 865 mm.
  2. For landings to a stair or ramp where the barrier is provided along the inside edge of the landing and does not exceed 500 mm in length — 865 mm.
  3. In front of fixed seating on a mezzanine or balcony within an auditorium in a Class 9b building—
    1. 1 m; or
    2. 700 mm where the horizontal projection extends not less than 1 m outwards from the top of the barrier; or
    3. in a Class 9b building used as an entertainment venue, the height prescribed for guardrails in NSW I4D41 or NSW I5D9.
  4. In a Class 9b building used as an entertainment venue, for stairways and ramps and the floor of any access path, balcony, landing or the like—
    1. 1 m when provided inside the building; and
    2. 1200 mm when provided externally to the building.
  5. For all other locations — 1 m.

(2) For a barrier provided under (1) —

  1. barrier heights are measured vertically from the surface beneath, except that for stairways the height must be measured above the nosing line of the stair treads; and
  2. a transition zone may be incorporated where the barrier height changes from 865 mm on a stair flight or ramp to 1 m at a landing or floor.

(1) Except where allowed by (2), openings in a required barrier must not allow a 125 mm sphere to pass through.

(2) In a fire-isolated stairway, fire-isolated ramp or other area used primarily for emergency purposes, openings in a required barrier—

  1. must not allow a 300 mm sphere to pass through; or
  2. where rails are used—
    1. a 150 mm sphere must not be able to pass through the opening between the nosing line of the stair treads and the rail or between the rail and the floor of the landing, balcony or the like; and
    2. the opening between rails must not be more than 460 mm.

(3) In Class 7 (other than carparks) and Class 8 buildings, openings in a required barrier—

  1. must not allow a 300 mm sphere to pass through; or
  2. where rails are used—
    1. a 150 mm sphere must not be able to pass through the opening between the nosing line of the stair treads and the rail or between the rail and the floor of the landing, balcony or the like; and
    2. the opening between the rails must not be more than 460 mm.

(4) The requirements of (2) do not apply to external stairways, external ramps, or fire-isolated stairways or fire-isolated ramps serving Class 9b early childhood centres.

(5) For a barrier provided under (1), the maximum 125 mm barrier opening for a stairway, such as a non fire-isolated stairway, is measured above the nosing line of the stair treads.

(6) Where a required barrier is fixed to the vertical face forming an edge of a landing, balcony, deck, stairway or the like, the opening formed between the barrier and the face must not exceed 40 mm.

(7) For the purposes of (6), the opening is measured horizontally from the edge of the trafficable surface to the nearest internal face of the barrier.

(1) A barrier required by D3D17, located on a floor more than 4 m above the surface beneath, must not incorporate horizontal or near horizontal elements that could facilitate climbing between 150 mm and 760 mm above the floor.

(2) The requirements of (1) do not apply to—

  1. fire-isolated stairways, fire-isolated ramps and other areas used primarily for emergency purposes, other than—
    1. external stairways; and
    2. external ramps; and
  2. Class 7 (other than carparks) and Class 8 buildings.

Where a required barrier is constructed of wire, it is deemed to meet the requirements of D3D19(1) if it is constructed in accordance with the following:

  1. For horizontal wire systems—
    1. when measured with a strain indicator, it must be in accordance with the tension values in Table D3D21a; or
    2. must not exceed the maximum deflections in Table D3D21c.
  2. For non-continuous vertical wire systems, when measured with a strain indicator, must be in accordance with the tension values in Table D3D21a (see Note 4).
  3. For continuous vertical or continuous near vertical sloped wire systems—
    1. must have wires of no more than 2.5 mm diameter with a lay of 7×7 or 7×19 construction; and
    2. changes in direction at support rails must pass around a pulley block without causing permanent deformation to the wire; and
    3. must have supporting rails, constructed with a spacing of not more than 900 mm, of a material that does not allow deflection that would decrease the tension of the wire under load; and
    4. when the wire tension is measured with a strain indicator, it must be in accordance with the tension values in Table D3D21b and measured in the furthermost span from the tensioning device.
Table D3D21a Wire barrier construction – minimum required tension (N) for stainless steel horizontal wires
Wire dia. (mm) Lay Wire spacing (mm) Clear distance between posts (mm)
600 800 900 1000 1200 1500 1800 2000 2500
2.5 7x7 60 55 190 263 415 478 823 1080 1139 X
80 382 630 730 824 1025 1288 X X X
100 869 1218 1368 X X X X X X
2.5 1x19 60 35 218 310 402 585 810 1125 1325 X
80 420 630 735 840 1050 1400 1750 X X
100 1140 1565 X X X X X X X
3.0 7x7 60 15 178 270 314 506 660 965 1168 1491
80 250 413 500 741 818 1083 1370 1565 X
100 865 1278 1390 1639 X X X X X
3.0 1x19 60 25 183 261 340 520 790 1025 1180 X
80 325 555 670 785 1015 1330 1725 1980 X
100 1090 1500 1705 1910 X X X X X
4.0 7x7 60 5 73 97 122 235 440 664 813 1178
80 196 422 480 524 760 1100 1358 1530 2130
100 835 1182 1360 1528 1837 2381 2811 3098 X
4.0 1x19 60 5 5 10 15 20 147 593 890 1280
80 30 192 300 415 593 1105 1303 1435 1844
100 853 1308 1487 1610 2048 2608 3094 3418 3849
4.0 7x19 60 155 290 358 425 599 860 1080 1285 1540
80 394 654 785 915 1143 1485 1860 2105 2615
100 1038 1412 1598 1785 2165 2735 X X X
Table Notes
  1. Lay = number of strands by the number of individual wires in each strand. For example a lay of 7x19 consists of 7 strands with 19 individual wires in each strand.
  2. Where a change of direction is made in a run of wire, the tensioning device is to be placed at the end of the longest span.
  3. If a 3.2 mm wire is used the tension figures for 3.0 mm wire are applied.
  4. This table may also be used for a set of non-continuous (single) vertical wires forming a barrier using the appropriate clear distance between posts as the vertical clear distance between the rails.
  5. X = Not allowed because the required tension would exceed the safe load of the wire.
  6. Tension measured with a strain indicator.
Table D3D21b Continuous wire barrier construction – minimum required tension (N) for vertical or near-vertical stainless steel wires where the maximum clear spacing between the rails is 900mm
Wire dia. (mm) Lay Widest spacing between wires (mm) Required tension (N)
2.5 7x19 80 145
100 310
110 610
2.5 7x7 80 130
100 280
110 500
Table Notes
  1. Lay = number of strands by the number of individual wires in each strand. For example a lay of 7x19 consists of 7 strands with 19 individual wires in each strand.
  2. Vertical wires require two pulley blocks to each 180° change of direction in the wire.
  3. Near vertical wires may only require one pulley block for each change of direction.
  4. Tension measured with a strain indicator.
  5. The table only includes 7x7 and 7x19 wires due to other wires not having sufficient flexibility to make the necessary turns.
Table D3D21c Wire barrier construction – maximum permissible deflection of each wire in mm when a 2 kg mass is suspended at mid-span for stainless steel wires
Wire dia. (mm) Wire spacing (mm) Clear distance between posts (mm)
600 900 1200 1500 1800 2000
2.5 60 17 11 9 8 8 8
80 7 5 5 5 X X
3.0 60 19 13 8 7 7 7
80 8 6 6 5 5 5
4.0 60 18 12 8 8 7 7
80 8 6 4 4 4 4
Table Notes
  1. Where a change of direction is made in a run of wire the 2 kg mass must be placed at the middle of the longest span.
  2. If a 3.2 mm wire is used the deflection figures for 3.0 mm wire are applied.
  3. This table may also be used for a set of non-continuous (single) vertical wires forming a barrier using the appropriate clear distance between posts as the vertical clear distance between the rails. The deflection (offset) is measured by hooking a standard spring scale to the mid span of each wire and pulling it horizontally until a force of 19.6 N is applied.
  4. X = Not allowed because the required tension would exceed the safe load of the wire.
  5. This table has been limited to 60 mm and 80 mm spaces for 2.5 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm diameter wires because the required wire tensions at greater spacings would require the tension to be beyond the wire safe load limit, or the allowed deflection would be impractical to measure.

(1) Except for handrails referred to in D3D23, and subject to (2), handrails must—

  1. be located along at least one side of the ramp or flight; and
  2. be located along each side if the total width of the stairway or ramp is 2 m or more; and
  3. in a Class 9b building used as a primary school or a building that contains an early childhood centre
    1. have one handrail fixed at a height of not less than 865 mm; and
    2. in addition to (i), have a handrail—
      1. fixed at a height between 665 mm and 750 mm in a primary school; and
      2. with a cross-sectional dimension not less than 16 mm and not greater than 45 mm as measured in any direction across its centre, fixed at a height between 450 mm and 700 mm in a Class 9b early childhood centre; and
  4. in any other case, be fixed at a height of not less than 865 mm; and
  5. be continuous between stair flight landings and have no obstruction on or above them that will tend to break a hand-hold; and
  6. in a required exit serving an area required to be accessible, be designed and constructed to comply with clause 12 of AS 1428.1, except that clause 12(d) does not apply to a handrail required by (1)(c)(ii).

(2) The height required by (1)(c) and (d) is measured above the nosings of stair treads and the floor surface of the ramp, landing or the like.

(3) Handrails—

  1. in a Class 9a health-care building must be provided along at least one side of every passageway or corridor used by patients, and must be—
    1. fixed not less than 50 mm clear of the wall; and
    2. where practicable, continuous for their full length; and
  2. in a Class 9c aged care building must be provided along both sides of every passageway or corridor used by residents, and must be—
    1. fixed not less than 50 mm clear of the wall; and
    2. where practicable, continuous for their full length.

(4) Handrails required to assist people with a disability must be provided in accordance with D4D4.

(5) Handrails to a stairway or ramp within a sole-occupancy unit in a Class 2 or 3 building or Class 4 part of a building must—

  1. be located along at least one side of the flight or ramp; and
  2. be located along the full length of the flight or ramp, except in the case where a handrail is associated with a barrier, the handrail may terminate where the barrier terminates; and
  3. have the top surface of the handrail not less than 865 mm vertically above the nosings of the stair treads or the floor surface of the ramp; and
  4. have no obstruction on or above them that will tend to break a handhold, except for newel posts, ball type stanchions, or the like.

(6) The requirements of (5) do not apply to—

  1. handrails referred to in D3D23; or
  2. a stairway or ramp providing a change in elevation of less than 1 m; or
  3. a landing; or
  4. a winder where a newel post is installed to provide a handhold.
NCC Blurbs

A fixed platform, walkway, stairway, ladder and any going and riser, landing, handrail or barrier attached thereto may comply with AS 1657 in lieu of D3D14, D3D15, D3D17, D3D18, D3D19, D3D20, D3D21 and D3D22 if it only serves—

  1. machinery rooms, boiler houses, lift-machine rooms, plant-rooms, and the like; or
  2. non-habitable rooms, such as attics, storerooms and the like that are not used on a frequent or daily basis in the internal parts of a sole-occupancy unit in a Class 2 building or Class 4 part of a building; or
  3. areas within a farm building.
NCC Title

Fixed platforms, walkways, stairways and ladders

NCC State
SA
NCC Variation Type
Replacement
NCC SPTC Current
Fixed platforms, walkways, stairways and ladders

A fixed platform, walkway, stairway, ladder and any going and riser, landing, handrail or barrier attached thereto may comply with AS 1657 in lieu of D3D14, D3D15, D3D17, D3D18, D3D19, D3D20, D3D21 and D3D22 if it only serves—

  1. machinery rooms, boiler houses, lift-machine rooms, plant-rooms, and the like; or
  2. non-habitable rooms, such as attics, storerooms and the like that are not used on a frequent or daily basis in the internal parts of a sole-occupancy unit in a Class 2 building or Class 4 part of a building.

(1) A doorway in a resident use area of a Class 9c building must not be fitted with—

  1. a sliding fire door; or
  2. a sliding smoke door; or
  3. a revolving door; or
  4. a roller shutter door; or
  5. a tilt-up door.

(2) A doorway serving as a required exit or forming part of a required exit, or a doorway in a patient care area of a Class 9a health-care building

  1. must not be fitted with a revolving door; and
  2. must not be fitted with a roller shutter or tilt-up door unless—
    1. it serves a Class 6, 7 or 8 building or part with a floor area not more than 200 m2; and
    2. the doorway is the only required exit from the building or part; and
    3. it is held in the open position while the building or part is lawfully occupied; and
  3. must not be fitted with a sliding door unless—
    1. it leads directly to a road or open space; and
    2. the door is able to be opened manually under a force of not more than 110 N; and
  4. if fitted with a door which is power-operated—
    1. it must be able to be opened manually under a force of not more than 110 N if there is a malfunction or failure of the power source; and
    2. if it leads directly to a road or open space it must open automatically if there is a power failure to the door or on the activation of a fire or smoke alarm anywhere in the fire compartment served by the door.

NSW D3D24 Doorways and doors2019: D2.19

Delete subclause D3D24(2) and insert D3D24(2) as follows:

(2) A doorway serving as a required exit or forming part of a required exit, or a doorway in a patient care area of a Class 9a health-care building

  1. must not be fitted with a revolving door; and
  2. must not be fitted with a roller shutter or tilt-up door unless—
    1. it serves a Class 6, 7 or 8 building or part with a floor area not more than 200 m2; and
    2. the doorway is the only required exit from the building or part; and
    3. it is held in the open position while the building or part is lawfully occupied; and
  3. must not be fitted with a sliding door unless—
    1. it leads directly to a road or open space; and
    2. the door is able to be opened manually under a force of not more than 110 N; and
  4. if fitted with a door which is power-operated—
    1. it must be able to be opened manually under a force of not more than 110 N if there is a malfunction or failure of the power source; and
    2. if it leads directly to a road or open space it must open automatically if there is a power failure to the door or on the activation of a fire or smoke alarm anywhere in the fire compartment served by the door; and
  5. in a Class 9b building used as an entertainment venue
    1. must not be fitted with a collapsible gate, accordion door, turnstile or rigid barrier; and
    2. if fitted with a door, must be—
      1. a swing door which opens in the direction of egress; and
      2. doors hung in two folds where the unobstructed width of the doorway is more than 1 m; and
    3. a doorway or opening within sight of the audience but not intended for egress must have a notice displayed clearly indicating its purpose and such a notice must not be internally illuminated; and
    4. notwithstanding (2)(c), a sliding door may be fitted where—
      1. it leads directly to a road or open space and forms a main entrance; and
      2. it is capable of swinging in the direction of egress when pressure is applied to the inside face of the door; and
      3. the door is provided with signage that clearly indicates to persons seeking egress, the potential for swinging the door open in an emergency.

(3) A power-operated door in a path of travel to a required exit, except for a door in a patient care area of a Class 9a health-care building as provided in (2), must be able to be opened manually under a force of not more than 110 N if there is a malfunction or failure of the power source.

(1) A swinging door in a required exit or forming part of a required exit

  1. must not encroach—
    1. at any part of its swing by more than 500 mm on the required width (including any landings) of a required stairway, ramp or passageway if it is likely to impede the path of travel of the people already using the exit; and
    2. when fully open, by more than 100 mm on the required width of the required exit; and
  2. must swing in the direction of egress unless—
    1. it serves a building or part with a floor area not more than 200 m2, it is the only required exit from the building or part and it is fitted with a device for holding it in the open position; or
    2. it serves a sanitary compartment or airlock (in which case it may swing in either direction); and
  3. must not otherwise impede the path or direction of egress.

SA D3D25 Swinging doors2019: D2.20

Delete subclause D3D25(1) and insert D3D25(1) as follows:

(1) A swinging door in a required exit or forming part of a required exit

  1. must not encroach—
    1. at any part of its swing by more than 500 mm on the required width (including any landings) of a required stairway, ramp or passageway if it is likely to impede the path of travel of the people already using the exit; and
    2. when fully open, by more than 100 mm on the required width of the required exit; and
  2. must swing in the direction of egress unless—
    1. it serves a building or part with a floor area not more than 200 m2, it is the only required exit from the building or part and it is fitted with a device for holding it in the open position; or
    2. it serves a sanitary compartment or airlock (in which case it may swing in either direction); or
    3. it serves a farm building; and
  3. must not otherwise impede the path or direction of egress.

(2) The measurement of encroachment referred to in (1)(a) in each case is to include door handles or other furniture or attachments to the door.

(1) A door in a required exit, forming part of a required exit or in the path of travel to a required exit must be readily openable without a key from the side that faces a person seeking egress, by—

  1. a single hand downward action on a single device which is located between 900 mm and 1.1 m from the floor and if serving an area required to be accessible by Part D4
    1. be such that the hand of a person who cannot grip will not slip from the handle during the operation of the latch; and
    2. have a clearance between the handle and the back plate or door face at the centre grip section of the handle of not less than 35 mm and not more than 45 mm; or
  2. a single hand pushing action on a single device which is located between 900 mm and 1.2 m from the floor.

(2) Where the latch operation device referred to in (1)(b) is not located on the door leaf itself—

  1. manual controls to power-operated doors must be at least 25 mm wide, proud of the surrounding surface and located—
    1. not less than 500 mm from an internal corner; and
    2. for a hinged door, between 1 m and 2 m from the door leaf in any position; and
    3. for a sliding door, within 2 m of the doorway and clear of a surface mounted door in the open position; and
  2. braille and tactile signage complying with S15C3 and S15C6 must identify the latch operation device.

(3) The requirements of (1) and (2) do not apply to a door that—

  1. serves a vault, strong-room, sanitary compartment, or the like; or
  2. serves only, or is within—
    1. a sole-occupancy unit in a Class 2 building or a Class 4 part of a building; or
    2. a sole-occupancy unit in a Class 3 building (other than an entry door to a sole-occupancy unit of a boarding house, guest house, hostel, lodging house or backpacker accommodation); or
    3. a sole-occupancy unit with a floor area not more than 200 m2 in a Class 5, 6, 7 or 8 building; or
    4. a space which is otherwise inaccessible to persons at all times when the door is locked; or
  3. complies with (4) and serves—
    1. Australian Government Security Zones 4 or 5; or
    2. the secure parts of a bank, detention centre, mental health facility, early childhood centre or the like; or
  4. is fitted with a fail-safe device which automatically unlocks the door upon the activation of any sprinkler system (other than a FPAA101D system) complying with Specification 17 or smoke, or any other detector system deemed suitable in accordance with AS 1670.1 installed throughout the building, and is readily openable when unlocked; or
  5. is in a Class 9a or 9c building and—
    1. is one leaf of a two-leaf door complying with D2D9(a) or D2D9(d) provided that it is not held closed by a locking mechanism and is readily openable; and
    2. the door is not required to be a fire door or smoke door.

(4) A door referred to in (3)(c) must be able to be immediately unlocked—

  1. by operating a fail-safe control switch, not contained within a protective enclosure, to actuate a device to unlock the door; or
  2. by hand by a person or persons, specifically nominated by the owner, properly instructed as to the duties and responsibilities involved and available at all times when the building is lawfully occupied so that persons in the building or part may immediately escape if there is a fire.

(5) The requirements of (1) and (2) do not apply in a Class 9b building (other than a school, an early childhood centre or a building used for religious purposes) to a door in a required exit, forming part of a required exit or in the path of travel to a required exit serving a storey or room accommodating more than 100 persons, determined in accordance with D2D18, in which case it must be readily openable—

  1. without a key from the side that faces a person seeking egress; and
  2. by a single hand pushing action on a single device such as a panic bar located between 900 mm and 1.2 m from the floor; and
  3. where a two-leaf door is fitted, the provisions of (a) and (b) need only apply to one door leaf if the appropriate requirements of D2D9 are satisfied by the opening of that one leaf.

NSW D3D26 Operation of latch2019: D2.21

Delete subclause D3D26(5) and insert D3D26(5) as follows:

(5) The requirements of (1) and (2) do not apply in a Class 9b building (other than a school, an early childhood centre or a building used for religious purposes) to a door in a required exit, forming part of a required exit or in the path of travel to a required exit serving a storey or room accommodating more than 100 persons, determined in accordance with D2D18, in which case it must be readily openable—

  1. without a key from the side that faces a person seeking egress; and
  2. by a single hand pushing action on a single device such as a panic bar located between 900 mm and 1.2 m from the floor; and
  3. where a two-leaf door is fitted, the provisions of (a) and (b) need only apply to one door leaf if the appropriate requirements of D2D9 are satisfied by the opening of that one leaf; and
  4. where the door is a door in a path of travel providing re-entry to the building from a balcony, terrace or the like, it may be fitted with key-operated fastenings only, the tongues of which must be locked in the retracted position whenever the building is occupied by the public, so the door can yield to pressure.

NSW D3D26 Operation of latch2019: D2.21

Insert NSW subclause D3D26(6) in clause D3D26 as follows:

(6) The requirements of (1), (2) and (5) do not apply to a door serving a Class 9b building used as an entertainment venue where the following provisions apply to a door or gate used by the public—

  1. on a door, the single device operating the latch or bolts must be a panic bar if those doors are to be secured; or
  2. an exit door or gate used by the public as the main entrance may be fitted with key-operated fastenings only, the tongues of which must be locked in the retracted position whenever the building is occupied by the public so the door or gate can yield to pressure from within; or
  3. a door from a balcony, terrace or the like, being a door in a path of travel providing re-entry to the building, may comply with the locking provision of (b) above.

VIC D3D26 Operation of latch2019: D2.21

Insert VIC subclause D3D26(6) in clause D3D26 as follows:

(6) For the purposes of (1), an exit door from a children’s service which does not open to an outdoor space enclosed in accordance with G1D4, must have the device located between 1.5 m and 1.65 m above the floor and the door must be self-closing.

(1) Doors of a fire-isolated exit must not be locked from the inside as follows:

  1. In a Class 9a health-care building.
  2. In a Class 9b early childhood centre.
  3. In a Class 9c building.
  4. In a fire-isolated exit serving any storey above an effective height of 25 m, throughout the exit.

(2) The requirements of (1)(a), (c) and (d) do not apply to a door fitted with a fail-safe device that automatically unlocks the door upon the activation of a fire alarm and—

  1. on at least every fourth storey, the doors are not able to be locked and a sign is fixed on such doors stating that re-entry is available; or
  2. an intercommunication system, or an audible or visual alarm system, operated from within the enclosure is provided near the doors and a sign is fixed adjacent to such doors explaining its purpose and method of operation.

(3) The requirements of (1)(b) do not apply to a door fitted with a fail-safe device that automatically unlocks the door serving the Class 9b early childhood centre upon the activation of a fire alarm.

(1) A sign, to alert persons that the operation of certain doors must not be impaired, must be installed where it can readily be seen on, or adjacent to—

  1. a required
    1. fire door providing direct access to a fire-isolated exit, except a door providing direct egress from a sole-occupancy unit in a Class 2 or 3 building or Class 4 part of a building; and
    2. smoke door; and
  2. any door which is a—
    1. fire door forming part of a horizontal exit; and
    2. smoke door that swings in both directions; and
    3. door leading from a fire isolated exit to a road or open space.

(2) A sign required by (1)(a) must be fixed on the side of the door that faces a person seeking egress and, if the door is fitted with a device for holding it in the open position, either a sign must be fixed on the wall adjacent to the doorway, or signs must be fixed to both sides of the door.

(3) A sign required by (1)(b) must be fixed on each side of the door.

(4) A sign referred to in (1) must be in capital letters not less than 20 mm high in a colour contrasting with the background and state the following:

  1. For an automatic door held open by an automatic hold-open device—
    FIRE SAFETY DOOR — DO NOT OBSTRUCT
  2. For a self-closing door—
    DO NOT OBSTRUCT
    DO NOT KEEP OPEN
    FIRE SAFETY DOOR
  3. For a door discharging from a fire-isolated exit
    FIRE SAFETY DOOR — DO NOT OBSTRUCT

(1) A window opening must be provided with protection, if the floor below the window is 2 m or more above the surface beneath in—

  1. a bedroom in a Class 2 or 3 building or Class 4 part of a building; or
  2. a Class 9b early childhood centre.

(2) Where the lowest level of the window opening is less than 1.7 m above the floor, a window opening covered by (1) must comply with the following:

  1. The openable portion of the window must be protected with—
    1. a device capable of restricting the window opening; or
    2. a screen with secure fittings.
  2. A device or screen required by (a) must—
    1. not permit a 125 mm sphere to pass through the window opening or screen; and
    2. resist an outward horizontal action of 250 N against the—
      1. window restrained by a device; or
      2. screen protecting the opening; and
    3. have a child resistant release mechanism if the screen or device is able to be removed, unlocked or overridden.

(3) A barrier with a height not less than 865 mm above the floor is required to an openable window—

  1. in addition to window protection, when a child resistant release mechanism is required by (2)(b)(iii); and
  2. where the floor below the window is 4 m or more above the surface beneath if the window is not covered by (1).

(4) A barrier covered by (3) except for (5) must not—

  1. permit a 125 mm sphere to pass through it; and
  2. have any horizontal or near horizontal elements between 150 mm and 760 mm above the floor that facilitate climbing.

(5) A barrier required by (3) to an openable window in—

  1. fire-isolated stairways, fire-isolated ramps and other areas used primarily for emergency purposes, excluding external stairways and external ramps; and
  2. Class 7 (other than carparks) and Class 8 buildings and parts of buildings containing those classes,

must not permit a 300 mm sphere to pass through it.

(1) Notwithstanding D3D3(a), timber treads, risers, landings and associated supporting framework within a required fire-isolated stairway or fire-isolated passageway may be constructed from fire-protected timber in accordance with C2D13

  1. if the timber—
    1. has a finished thickness of not less than 44 mm; and
    2. has an average density of not less than 800 kg/m3 at a moisture content of 12%; and
  2. subject to—
    1. the building being protected throughout by a sprinkler system (other than a FPAA101D system) complying with Specification 17 which extends to within the fire-isolated enclosure; and
    2. fire protection being provided to the underside of stair flights and landings located immediately above a landing level which—
      1. is at or near the level of egress; or
      2. provides direct access to a carpark.

(2) Fire protection required by (1) must be not less than one layer of 13 mm fire-protective grade plasterboard fixed in accordance with the system requirements for a fire-protective covering.

NCC Blurbs

In a Class 9b building used as an entertainment venue, a doorway in a path of travel must comply with NSW D3D24(2)(e).

NCC Title

Doors in paths of travel to an entertainment venue

NCC State
NSW
NCC Variation Type
Insertion
NCC SPTC Current
Doors in paths of travel to an entertainment venue