NCC 2022 Volume One - Building Code of Australia Class 2 to 9 buildings

F6

Part F6 Light and ventilation

Part F6 Light and ventilation

Introduction to this Part

This Part is intended to ensure that building occupants have access to natural and artificial lighting, and fresh air, to prevent illness, injury or loss of amenity. This part also includes provisions for the location of sanitary compartments to reduce health risks and the spread of odours, airlocks and carpark and kitchen local exhaust ventilation.

Objectives

The Objective of this Part is to—

  1. safeguard occupants from injury, illness or loss of amenity due to—
    1. isolation from natural light; and
    2. lack of adequate artificial lighting; and
  2. safeguard occupants from illness or loss of amenity due to lack of air freshness.

Functional Statements

A space within a building used by occupants is to be provided with openings to admit natural light consistent with its function or use.

A space within a building used by occupants is to be provided with artificial lighting consistent with its function or use which, when activated in the absence of suitable natural light, will enable safe movement.

A space used by occupants within a building is to be provided with adequate ventilation consistent with its function or use.

Performance Requirements

Sufficient openings must be provided and distributed in a building, appropriate to the function or use of that part of the building so that natural light, when available, provides an average daylight factor of not less than 2%.

Applications

F6P1 only applies to a Class 2, 3 or 9 building, or a Class 4 part of a building.

Artificial lighting must be installed to provide an illuminance of not less than 20 lux appropriate to the function or use of the building to enable safe movement by occupants.

A space in a building used by occupants must be provided with means of ventilation with outdoor air which will maintain adequate air quality.

A mechanical air-handling system installed in a building must control—

  1. the circulation of objectionable odours; and
  2. the accumulation of harmful contamination by micro-organisms, pathogens and toxins.

Contaminated air must be disposed of in a manner which does not unduly create a nuisance or hazard to people in the building or other property.

Verification Methods

For a Class 2, 3, 5, 6, 9b or 9c building or Class 4 part of a building, compliance with F6P3 and F6P4(a) is verified when it is determined that the building under typical conditions in use is provided with sufficient ventilation with outdoor air such that contaminant levels do not exceed the limits specified in Table F6V1.

Table F6V1 Maximum contaminant limits for acceptable indoor air quality
Pollutant Averaging time Maximum air quality value
Carbon dioxide, CO2 8 hours 850 ppm Note 1
Carbon monoxide, CO 15 minutes 90 ppm
Carbon monoxide, CO 30 minutes 50 ppm
Carbon monoxide, CO 1 hour 25 ppm
Carbon monoxide, CO 8 hours 10 ppm
Formaldehyde, CH2O 30 minutes 0.1 mg/m3
Nitrogen dioxide, NO2 1 year 40 μg/m3 (0.0197 ppm) Note 2
Nitrogen dioxide, NO2 1 hour 200 μg/m3 (0.0987 ppm)
Ozone, O3 8 hour, daily maximum 100 μg/m3 (0.0473 ppm)
Particulate matter, PM2.5 1 year 10 μg/m3
Particulate matter, PM2.5 24 hour (99th percentile) 25 μg/m3
Particulate matter, PM10 1 year 20 μg/m3
Particulate matter, PM10 24 hour (99th percentile) 50 μg/m3
Total volatile organic compounds 1 hour 500 μg/m3
Table Notes
  1. Based on body odour metric (i.e. 450 ppm above ambient CO2 level of 400 ppm and demand control ventilation provisions in AS 1668.2).
  2. Based on pressure of 101.325 kPa and temperature of 25°C (i.e. the conversion is mg/m3 = ppm (molecular weight/24.4)).

For a Class 7a building, compliance with F6P3 and F6P4(a) is verified when it is determined that the building is provided with sufficient ventilation with outdoor air such that carbon monoxide exposure levels do not exceed the limits specified in Table F6V2.

Table F6V2 Maximum carbon monoxide exposure for carparks
Concentration (ppm) Total exposure duration per day
100 Not to be exceeded
90 15 minutes
60 1 hour
30 8 hours
Table Notes

Various government work health and safety regulations specify workplace exposure limits for airborne contaminants in the workplace.

Compliance with F6P1 is verified for the provision of natural light when the average daylight factor for each window is determined in accordance with the formula:

Average Daylight Factor=WATθ(1R2)MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaeyqaiaabA hacaqGLbGaaeOCaiaabggacaqGNbGaaeyzaiaabccacaqGebGaaeyy aiaabMhacaqGSbGaaeyAaiaabEgacaqGObGaaeiDaiaabccacaqGgb GaaeyyaiaabogacaqG0bGaae4BaiaabkhacqGH9aqpdaWcaaqaaiaa dEfaaeaacaWGbbaaamaalaaabaGaamivaiabeI7aXbqaaiaacIcaca aIXaGaeyOeI0IaamOuamaaCaaaleqabaGaaGOmaaaakiaacMcaaaaa aa@546B@
, where—

  1. WMathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4vaaaa@36D0@  
    = the net area of the light transmitting window (m2); and
  2. AMathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyqaaaa@36BA@  
    = the total area of the internal wall, floor and ceiling surfaces (m2); and
  3. TMathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamivaaaa@36CD@  
    = the diffuse light transmittance of the window; and
  4. θMathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeqiUdehaaa@37AA@  
    = visible sky angle in degrees, measured in a vertical plane normal to and from the centre of the window; and
  5. RMathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOuaaaa@36CB@  
    = the area-weighted average reflectance of area
    AMathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyqaaaa@36BA@  
    .

Applications

F6V3 only applies to—

  1. habitable rooms of Class 2 buildings and Class 4 parts of buildings; and
  2. bedrooms and dormitories of Class 3 buildings; and
  3. rooms used for sleeping purposes in Class 9a and 9c buildings; and
  4. general purpose classrooms in primary and secondary school and playrooms or the like for the use of children in an early childhood centre in Class 9b buildings.

Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions

(1) Where a Deemed-to-Satisfy Solution is proposed, Performance Requirements F6P1 to F6P5 are satisfied by complying with—

  1. F6D2 to F6D12; and
  2. for a building containing an occupiable outdoor area, Part G6; and
  3. for farm buildings and farm sheds, Part I3.

(2) Where a Performance Solution is proposed, the relevant Performance Requirements must be determined in accordance with A2G2(3) and A2G4(3) as applicable.

Natural light must be provided in:

  1. A Class 2 building and a Class 4 part of a building — to all habitable rooms.
  2. A Class 3 building — to all bedrooms and dormitories.
  3. Class 9a and 9c buildings — to all rooms used for sleeping purposes.
  4. A Class 9b building — to all general purpose classrooms in primary or secondary schools and all playrooms or the like for the use of children in an early childhood centre.

(1) Required natural light must be provided by—

  1. windows, excluding roof lights, that—
    1. have an aggregate light transmitting area measured exclusive of framing members, glazing bars or other obstructions of not less than 10% of the floor area of the room; and
    2. are open to the sky or face a court or other space open to the sky or an open verandah, carport or the like; or
  2. roof lights, that—
    1. have an aggregate light transmitting area measured exclusive of framing members, glazing bars or other obstructions of not less than 3% of the floor area of the room; and
    2. are open to the sky; or
  3. a proportional combination of windows and roof lights required by (a) and (b).

(2) Except in a Class 9c aged care building, in a Class 2, 3 or 9 building or Class 4 part of a building, a required window that faces a boundary of an adjoining allotment or a wall of the same building or another building on the allotment must not be less than a horizontal distance from that boundary or wall that is the greater of—

  1. generally — 1 m; and
  2. in a patient care area or other room used for sleeping purposes in a Class 9a building — 3 m; and
  3. 50% of the square root of the exterior height of the wall in which the window is located, measured in metres from its sill.

(3) In a Class 9c aged care building, a required window must be transparent and located—

  1. in an external wall with the window sill not more than 1 m above the floor level; and
  2. where the window faces an adjoining allotment, another building or another wall of the same building, it must not be less than a horizontal distance of 3 m from the adjoining allotment, other building or wall.

(4) In a Class 9b early childhood centre, the sills of 50% of windows in children's rooms must be located not more than 500 mm above the floor level.

(1) Natural light to a room in a Class 2 building or Class 4 part of a building or in a sole-occupancy unit of a Class 3 building, may come through one or more glazed panels or openings from an adjoining room (including an enclosed verandah) if—

  1. both rooms are within the same sole-occupancy unit or the enclosed verandah is on common property; and
  2. the glazed panels or openings have an aggregate light transmitting area of not less than 10% of the floor area of the room to which it provides light; and
  3. the adjoining room has—
    1. windows, excluding roof lights, that—
      1. have an aggregate light transmitting area of not less than 10% of the combined floor areas of both rooms; and
      2. are open to the sky or face a court or other space open to the sky or an open verandah, carport or the like; or
    2. roof lights, that—
      1. have an aggregate light transmitting area of not less than 3% of the combined floor areas of both rooms; and
      2. are open to the sky; or
    3. a proportional combination of windows and roof lights required by (i) and (ii).

(2) The areas specified in (1)(b) and (c) may be reduced as appropriate if direct natural light is provided from another source.

(1) Artificial lighting must be provided—

  1. in required stairways, passageways, and ramps; and
  2. if natural light of a standard equivalent to that required by F6D3 is not available, and the periods of occupation or use of the room or space will create undue hazard to occupants seeking egress in an emergency, in—
    1. a Class 4 part of a building — to sanitary compartments, bathrooms, shower rooms, airlocks and laundries; and
    2. a Class 2 building — to sanitary compartments, bathrooms, shower rooms, airlocks, laundries, common stairways and other spaces used in common by the occupants of the building; and
    3. Class 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 buildings — to all rooms that are frequently occupied, all spaces required to be accessible, all corridors, lobbies, internal stairways, other circulation spaces and paths of egress.

(2) The artificial lighting system must comply with AS/NZS 1680.0.

(3) The system may provide a lesser level of illumination to the following spaces during times when the level of lighting would be inappropriate for the use:

  1. A theatre, cinema or the like, when performances are in progress, with the exception of aisle lighting required by Part I1.
  2. A museum, gallery or the like, where sensitive displays require low lighting levels.
  3. A discotheque, nightclub or the like, where to create an ambience and character for the space, low lighting levels are used.
NCC Blurbs

A habitable room, office, shop, factory, workroom, sanitary compartment, bathroom, shower room, laundry and any other room occupied by a person for any purpose must have—

  1. natural ventilation complying with F6D7; or
  2. a mechanical ventilation or air-conditioning system complying with AS 1668.2.

Notes

The reference to AS/NZS 3666.1 is deleted from the BCA in NSW, as the need to comply with this standard is regulated in the Public Health Regulation 2012, under the Public Health Act 2010.

NCC Title

Ventilation of rooms

NCC State
NSW
NCC Variation Type
Replacement
NCC SPTC Current
Ventilation of rooms
NCC Blurbs

A habitable room, office, shop, factory, workroom, sanitary compartment, bathroom, shower room, laundry and any other room occupied by a person for any purpose must have—

  1. natural ventilation complying with F6D7; or
  2. a mechanical ventilation or air-conditioning system complying with AS 1668.2 and AS/NZS 3666.1; or
  3. in a storage shed or bulk grain storage facility, a ventilation system that provides one air change every six hours using openings that have a total area of the lesser of—
    1. 35 m2; or
    2. one percent of the total floor area.
NCC Title

Ventilation of rooms

NCC State
SA
NCC Variation Type
Replacement
NCC SPTC Current
Ventilation of rooms

A habitable room, office, shop, factory, workroom, sanitary compartment, bathroom, shower room, laundry and any other room occupied by a person for any purpose must have—

  1. natural ventilation complying with F6D7; or
  2. a mechanical ventilation or air-conditioning system complying with AS 1668.2 and AS/NZS 3666.1.

(1) Natural ventilation provided in accordance with F6D6(a) must consist of openings, windows, doors or other devices which can be opened—

  1. with a ventilating area not less than 5% of the floor area of the room required to be ventilated; and
  2. open to—
    1. a suitably sized court, or space open to the sky; or
    2. an open verandah, carport, or the like; or
    3. an adjoining room in accordance with F6D8.

(2) The requirements of (1)(a) do not apply to a Class 8 electricity network substation.

Natural ventilation to a room may come through a window, opening, door or other device from an adjoining room (including an enclosed verandah) if both rooms are within the same sole-occupancy unit or the enclosed verandah is common property, and—

  1. in a Class 2 building, a sole-occupancy unit of a Class 3 building or Class 4 part of a building—
    1. the room to be ventilated is not a sanitary compartment; and
    2. the window, opening, door or other device has a ventilating area of not less than 5% of the floor area of the room to be ventilated; and
    3. the adjoining room has a window, opening, door or other device with a ventilating area of not less than 5% of the combined floor areas of both rooms; and
  2. in a Class 5, 6, 7, 8 (except a Class 8 electricity network substation) or 9 building—
    1. the window, opening, door or other device has a ventilating area of not less than 10% of the floor area of the room to be ventilated, measured not more than 3.6 m above the floor; and
    2. the adjoining room has a window, opening, door or other device with a ventilating area of not less than 10% of the combined floor areas of both rooms; and
  3. the ventilating areas specified in (a) and (b) may be reduced as appropriate if direct natural ventilation is provided from another source.

A sanitary compartment must not open directly into—

  1. a kitchen or pantry; or
  2. a public dining room or restaurant; or
  3. a dormitory in a Class 3 building; or
  4. a room used for public assembly (which is not an early childhood centre, primary school or open spectator stand); or
  5. a workplace normally occupied by more than one person.

If a sanitary compartment is prohibited under F6D9 from opening directly to another room—

  1. in a sole-occupancy unit in a Class 2 or 3 building or Class 4 part of a building—
    1. access must be by an airlock, hallway or other room; or
    2. the sanitary compartment must be provided with mechanical exhaust ventilation; and
  2. in a Class 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9 building (which is not an early childhood centre, primary school or open spectator stand)—
    1. access must be by an airlock, hallway or other room with a floor area of not less than 1.1 m2 and fitted with self-closing doors at all access doorways; or
    2. the sanitary compartment must be provided with mechanical exhaust ventilation and the doorway to the room adequately screened from view.

Every storey of a carpark, except an open-deck carpark, must have—

  1. a system of mechanical ventilation complying with AS 1668.2; or
  2. a system of natural ventilation complying with Section 4 of AS 1668.4.

A commercial kitchen must be provided with a kitchen exhaust hood complying with AS 1668.1 and AS 1668.2 where—

  1. any cooking apparatus has—
    1. a total maximum electrical power input exceeding 8 kW; or
    2. a total gas power input exceeding 29 MJ/hour; or
  2. the total maximum power input to more than one apparatus exceeds, per m2 of floor area of the room or enclosure—
    1. 0.5 kW electrical power; or
    2. 1.8 MJ/hour gas.