NCC 2019 Volume One
Specification D1.12 Non-required stairways, ramps and escalators

Specification D1.12 Non-required stairways, ramps and escalators

1. Scope

This Specification contains the requirements to allow non-required stairways, ramps or escalators to connect any number of storeys in a Class 5 or 6 building. The requirements do not apply in an atrium or outside a building.

This Guide does not address every provision in this Specification. However, there are more comments which should be made:

Purpose of Specification D1.12

Specification D1.12 establishes requirements for the construction and installation of stairways, ramps and escalators not required by the BCA, and which are not fire-isolated. These requirements aim to prevent the spread of fire through an unrestricted number of floors through unprotected openings for stairways, ramps and escalators.

Consistency with atrium requirements

Specification D1.12 is consistent with the provisions of Part G3, which, without imposing additional requirements, allows an atrium to connect two non-sprinkler protected storeys or three sprinkler protected storeys.

Need for fire shaft

There does not yet appear to be a practical method of applying this Specification without the construction of a fire shaft. Such a shaft provides the necessary fire separation between the floors. Its construction is similar to that of a fire-isolated stairway shaft.

2. Requirements

An escalator, moving walkway or non-required non-fire-isolated stairway or pedestrian ramp must comply with the following:


The escalator, walkway, stairway or ramp must be bounded by a shaft of—


construction with an FRL of not less than 120/120/120 if loadbearing or –/120/120 if non-loadbearing and if of lightweight construction must comply with Specification C1.8; or


glazed construction with an FRL of not less than –/60/30 protected by a wall wetting system in accordance with Clause 2 of Specification G3.8.


The void of each non-required stairway, ramp or escalator must not connect more than 2 storeys.


Rising and descending escalators, walkways, stairways and ramps within one shaft must be separated by construction with an FRL of not less than –/60/30.


Openings into the shaft must be protected by fire doors with an FRL not less than –/60/30.


When the fire door is in the closed position, the floor or any covering over the floor beneath the fire door must not be combustible.


Fire doors must be fitted with smoke seals and the assembly must be tested in accordance with AS 1530.4.


Fire doors must be—


closed and locked for security reasons; or


held open and be automatic closing.


Smoke detectors must be installed on both sides of the opening, not more than 1.5 m horizontal distance from the opening.


In the closed position, fire doors must be openable on a single hand downward action or horizontal pushing action on a single device within the shaft and by key only from outside the shaft.


A warning sign must be displayed where it can readily be seen outside the shaft near all fire doors opening to the shaft. The sign must comply with the details and dimensions of Figure 2.

Figure 2 Warning sign for non-required stairway, ramp or escalator

All doors opening into the shaft must be within 20 m of a required exit.


Signs showing the direction of the nearest required exit must be installed where they can be readily seen.


Materials attached to any wall, ceiling or floor within the shaft must comply with Specification C1.10.


Emergency lighting must be installed in the shaft in accordance with E4.4.


No step or ramp may be closer to the threshold of the doorway than the width of the door leaf.