Part 3.3.5 Masonry veneer
Appropriate Performance Requirements
Appropriate Performance Requirements
Acceptable Construction Practice
the building is located in an area with a design wind speed of not more than N3; and
masonry veneer walls are constructed on footings that comply with Part 3.2; and
the building site soil classification is A, S or M; and
the building is not constructed in an alpine area; and
the building is one for which Appendix A of AS 1170.4 contains no specific earthquake design requirements.
184.108.40.206 Height of wall limitation
Masonry veneer walls must not be greater than 8.5 m in height when measured above the adjacent finished ground level.
220.127.116.11 Masonry units
Masonry units must have a minimum characteristic unconfined compressive strength of—
3 MPa for solid or cored units; or
10 MPa for hollow units.
Masonry veneer walls must have a minimum veneer thickness of 90 mm.
Subject to (d), masonry units must be—
either clay or calcium silicate brick or concrete brick or block; and
classified and used in the exposure conditions appropriate to their classification as described in Table 18.104.22.168.
Suitable for use in locations such as—
General purpose (GP)
Suitable for use in all locations except those where 'Exposure class' is required.
Exposure class (Exp)
Suitable for use in all locations including severe local conditions such as—
The exposure classification or durability of a masonry unit is a measure of its resistance to attack by soluble salts, either in the ground or in the atmosphere. All masonry products manufactured are classified by their durability. The majority of uses will require either an Exposure class (Exp) product or a General Purpose (GP) product.
Mixing of panels consisting of clay masonry units with panels consisting of concrete or calcium silicate masonry units is not permitted unless—
at vertical junctions, a control joint is installed; and
at horizontal junctions between panels of different materials, a slip joint using a membrane similar to that used for damp-proof courses is installed.
22.214.171.124 Mortar mixes
Mortar used for masonry construction must comply with AS 3700 or AS 4773 except that the mortar may be mixed by volume in the proportions stated in Table 126.96.36.199.
Mortar mix by volume Note 1
Brick exposure classification
Suitable for concrete masonry Note 2
Notes to Table 188.8.131.52 :
- Additives may be used provided they comply with the appropriate specified rate.
- Mortar mixes for masonry require the use of methyl cellulose water thickener.
184.108.40.206 Mortar joints
Unless otherwise specified, masonry bed and perpend joints must have a nominal thickness of 10 mm.
Where raked joints are used they must not be—
raked deeper than 10 mm; or
used in saline environments or areas subject to heavy industrial airborne pollution.
The clear width of a cavity between the masonry veneer and the exterior face of the supporting frame must be not less than 25 mm wide and where the masonry veneer is constructed on a slab-on-ground, the cavity must be drained to the outside in accordance with 220.127.116.11.
The 25 mm clear width of the cavity needs to be maintained regardless of any wall membranes, sheet bracing or services installed to the supporting frame.
18.104.22.168 Damp-proof courses and flashings — material
a material that complies with AS/NZS 2904; or
embossed black polyethylene film of high impact resistance and low slip, with a nominal thickness of 0.5 mm prior to embossing, and comply with clause 7.6 of AS/NZS 2904; or
polyethylene coated metal, that has an aluminium core of not less than 0.1 mm thick, is coated both sides with bitumen adhesive enclosed in polyethylene film of not less than 0.1 mm thick on each face, and has a nominal total thickness of not less than 0.5 mm prior to embossing; or
bitumen impregnated materials of not less than 2.5 mm thick, that comply with clause 7.5 of AS/NZS 2904; or
22.214.171.124 Damp-proof courses and flashings — installation
located so as to form a continuous damp-proofing barrier—
around the bottom perimeter of walls where constructed on a concrete slab; and
in walls and piers below suspended floors; and
where a masonry wall passes through a roof; and
where a roof abuts an external masonry wall; and
to the bottom and tops of windows and doors and the like in accordance with (c), except a damp-proof course or a flashing need not be provided to the top of a window or door where the opening is protected by an eave of a width more than 3 times the height of the masonry veneer above the opening; and
continuous through the wall or pier and be visible from the outside face of the wall.
150 mm above the adjacent ground level; or
75 mm above the finished surface level of adjacent paved, concreted or landscaped areas that slope away from the wall; or
50 mm above finished paved, concreted or landscaped areas complying with 126.96.36.199(b)(ii) and protected from the direct effects of the weather by a carport, verandah or the like; or
Sill and head flashings serving openings must be—
installed so that the flashing extends not less than 150 mm beyond the reveals on each side of the opening; and
located not more than—
one course below the sill brick course; and
300 mm above the opening; and
turned up in the cavity not less than 150 mm above the opening; and
embedded not less than 30 mm into the masonry veneer; and
attached to the window or wall framing.
a minimum of 50 mm in height, by the width of the vertical mortar joint; and
at not more than 1.2 m centres; and
188.8.131.52 Wall ties
Veneer wall ties must—
be protected against corrosion in accordance with Table 184.108.40.206.
450 mm wall stud spacing
600 mm wall stud spacing
Maximum 450 mm centres
Maximum 600 mm centres
Maximum 400 mm
Maximum 400 mm
Placement of wall ties
Unsupported panel sides and edges of openings
Within 300 mm of panel side or edge
Top of veneer panels and top of panels under openings
Within 300 mm or two courses (whichever is the lesser) of the top of veneer
- Bottom of veneer panel in masonry rebate sealed with liquid applied damp-proof course
- Bottom of veneer panel supported on steel lintel
Within 300 mm or two courses (whichever is the lesser) from the bottom of the veneer
Bottom of veneer panel in masonry rebate with membrane damp-proof course
In each of the first two courses
Where articulation joints occur
At both sides of the articulation joint within 300 mm from the joint
Within 200 mm of the top of the pier
Note to Table 220.127.116.11b: Ties are to be fixed to the supporting frame at all regular stud positions using screws or nails.
Tie specification - minimum corrosion protection
- less than 1 km from breaking surf; or
- less than 100 m from salt water not subject to breaking surf; or
- within heavy industrial areas.
- Grade 316L stainless steel; or
- engineered polymer complying with the requirements of AS/NZS 2699.1.
- 1 km or more but less than 10 km from breaking surf; or
- 100 m or more but less than 1 km from salt water not subject to breaking surf.
- Sheet steel and bar ties galvanised after manufacture - 470 g/m2 on each side; or
- galvanised wire ties - 470 g/m2 coating mass; or
- Grade 304L stainless steel.
All other areas
- Galvanised sheet steel - 300 g/m2 coating on each side; or
- sheet steel ties galvanised after manufacture - 300 g/m2 on each side.
Wall ties that are suitable for use in a more severe exposure condition are also suitable for use in less severe exposure conditions, i.e. stainless steel and engineered polymer ties are suitable for use in all conditions and 470g/m2 galvanised ties can be used in all exposure conditions except the most severe.
18.104.22.168 Openings in masonry veneer
Except where excluded by (b), openings in masonry veneer must be spanned by steel lintels.
Openings in masonry veneer not more than 500 mm wide need not be provided with a steel lintel provided the opening is adequately supported.
Where a lintel is required it must comply with the following:
Steel lintels must comply with this Part or Part 3.4.4.
Steel lintels must—
be sized in accordance with Table 22.214.171.124; and
be installed with the long leg of lintel angle vertical; and
not carry more than a 110 mm thick veneer; and
not carry masonry more than 3 m in height when measured above the opening; and
have a minimum bearing length at each end of the lintel of—
for clear spans not more than 1 m - 100 mm; or
for clear spans more than 1 m - 150 mm (See Figure 126.96.36.199); and
have a minimum of three courses of masonry over openings; and
comply with the corrosion protection requirements of Table 188.8.131.52.
Maximum clear span of lintel (mm):
≤ 600 mm of masonry over opening
Maximum clear span of lintel (mm)
> 600 mm of masonry over opening
Flat 75 x 8
Flat 100 x 10
Angle 90 x 90 x 6EA
Angle 90 x 90 x 8EA
Angle 100 x 100 x 6EA
Angle 100 x 100 x 8EA
Angle 150 x 90 x 8UA
Note to Table 184.108.40.206: The lintels described in this Table must be not less than grade 300 MPa in accordance with AS 4100.
Durability class of lintel in accordance with AS/NZS 2699.3 Note 1
Material or protective requirements in accordance with AS/NZS 2699.3 Note 1
Hot dip galvanised with a minimum average coating thickness of 300 g/m2; or
stainless steel 316L
Hot dip galvanised with a minimum average coating thickness of 600 g/m2; or
stainless steel 316L
Stainless steel 316L
Notes to Table 220.127.116.11 :
- AS/NZS 2699.3 contains information on the corrosivity category locations in Australia and provides a method for determining coating thickness for lintels.
- Additional decorative coatings can be applied, but must not be considered for the purpose of satisfying the requirements of this Table.
- Any lintel with a coating that is modified, i.e. by cutting, welding, or where damaged, must have the coating restored to provide an equivalent level of protection provided by the original coating.
18.104.22.168 Vertical articulation joints
For the purposes of 22.214.171.124, the vertical articulation joint also performs the function of a contraction or expansion joint.
in straight, continuous walls having no openings - at not more than 6 m centres and within 4.5 m, but not closer than 470 mm of all corners; and
in straight, continuous walls with openings more than 900 x 900 mm - at not more than 5 m centres and located so that they are not more than 1.2 m away from openings; and
where the height of the wall changes by more than 20% - at the position of change in height; and
where a wall changes in thickness; and
at control or construction joints in footings or slabs; and
at junctions of walls constructed of different masonry materials.
Articulation joints must not be constructed adjacent to arched openings.
Articulation joints must either be filled with—
a compressible foam or polystyrene filler and a flexible sealant; or
a purpose made backer rod and a flexible sealant (see Figure 126.96.36.199).
Note to Figure 188.8.131.52: Joints and sealants may be painted to reduce visual impact.
184.108.40.206 Engaged piers
Where engaged piers are installed to support subfloor framing, they must comply with the provisions of this Part and be constructed as follows:
Footings for piers must comply with Part 3.2.
Engaged piers must not support more than a single storey with a roof framing span of not more than 12 m.
Piers must be—
not more than 1.2 m high; and
a minimum thickness of 100 mm inclusive of mortar; and
a width greater than the depth of the timber or steel section which it is supporting (See Figure 220.127.116.11).
Piers must be tied or bonded to the external masonry wall, and where ties are used they must comply with 18.104.22.168.
Piers formed from hollow-core masonry units must be filled with grout.